||Heliopais personatus (Gray, 1849)
||Masked Finfoot, Asian Finfoot
Heliopais personata (Gray, 1849) — Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Heliopais personata (Gray, 1849) — BirdLife International (2004)
Heliopais personata (Gray, 1849) — BirdLife International (2000)
Heliopais personata (Gray, 1849) — Collar et al. (1994)
Heliopais personata (Gray, 1849) — Collar and Andrew (1988)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||52-54.5 cm. Secretive finfoot. Males have grey hind crown and hindneck, black throat and upper foreneck with white border, black forecrown and line along crown side, thick yellow bill with small horn at base, mostly whitish underparts, brown flanks and undertail-coverts with some whitish bars. Dark brown eyes and bright green legs and feet. Females have whitish throat, upper foreneck and much of lores, less black on forecrown, no horn and yellow eyes. Juvenile is browner above than female, lacks black on forecrown, has less distinct and more mottled black on neck-side and creamy-yellow bill. Voice Rather high-pitched bubbling sounds during courtship, possibly followed by clucks.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Duckworth, W., Eames, J.C., Eaton, J., Iqbal, M., Mansur, E., Thompson, P., Tordoff, J., Mahood, S. & Chowdhury, S.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Peet, N., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T, Westrip, J.
This elusive species has a very small, and very rapidly declining population as a result of the ongoing loss and degradation of wetlands and especially riverine lowland forest in Asia; it therefore qualifies as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2009 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Heliopais personatus is patchily distributed from north-east India and Bangladesh, through Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Java (one record), Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). Populations are apparently in steep decline throughout its range such that its population is now thought to number in the low thousands at most, and possibly fewer than 1,000 mature individuals (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007). The lastest record from Sumatra dates from 2009, the first sighting in Indonesia for 16 years (M. Iqbal in litt. 2016). Elsewhere it continues to be recorded from the Sundarbans of Bangladesh (Mansur in litt. 2005) and it was recently recorded in Bharatpur district, India (Verma and Mathur 2006); there are recent records from Cambodia (Goes et al. in prep.), Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Kachin state, Myanmar is the least known part of its range; the area probably supports the largest remaining population and it was recorded as still relatively common during wetland surveys in the early 2000s (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007). Its movements are poorly known; it appears to occur as a migrant in parts of the range, but breeding has been reported recently from Cambodia, Myanmar and Bangladesh (Neumann-Denzau 2008), and birds are recorded in most seasons in the Sundarbans and Myanmar. No empirical estimates exist for the current rate of decline, but as a species reliant on undisturbed wetlands declines are anticipated across its range given the pressure on riverine and mangrove habitats. Threats in Myanmar (now assumed to be the species's stronghold) remain largely unknown, but several major river systems that have until now remained in a largely natural state, are now threatened by dam development and heavy immigration (W. Duckworth in litt. 2008). |
Bangladesh; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1810000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1220|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species appears to have declined dramatically and is now known from comparatively few sites, occurring at low densities everywhere. The population may now number as low as 1,000 individuals (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007), and so is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Very rapid declines are suspected over the past three generations in this long-lived species. Habitat conversion has been a major threat over the period with riverine systems amongst the most disturbed and most degraded environments in South-East Asia.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||600-1700||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|