||Amazona viridigenalis (Cassin, 1853)
||Red-crowned Amazon, Green-cheeked Amazon, Red-crowned Parrot
||Amapola, Amazona Tamaulipeca, Loro Cabeza Roja, Loro Tamaulipeco
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||33 cm. Green parrot with striking red forehead. Blue postocular stripe extends down sides of neck. Red speculum. Dark blue primaries. Yellow tips to outer-tail feathers. Female and immature have less red on crown. Similar spp. Red-lored Parrot A. autumnalis has yellow on face, slower flight and trilling wee-ee-eee-eet voice. Yellow-headed Parrot A. oratrix has yellow head. Immature separated from adult Lilac-crowned Parrot A. finschi by mainly green crown and fewer black-tipped feathers on underparts. Voice Shrill screaming followed by three lower and ascending notes clee-u crack crack crack. Also other screaming and chattering calls.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Brush, T., Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E., Navarro, A., Berg, K. & Monterrubio-Rico, T.
||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C.J., Stattersfield, A., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
The combination of high levels of exploitation for the cagebird trade, long-term habitat loss and reduced density estimates indicates that this species is declining very rapidly. It consequently qualifies as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Endangered (EN)
- 2013 – Endangered (EN)
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Endangered (EN)
- 1994 – Endangered (EN)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Amazona viridigenalis is locally and seasonally fairly common to common on the Atlantic slope of north-east Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995a), mostly in Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosí, with small colonies in extreme north-east Querétaro (A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998). In 1992-1994, densities in one area were estimated at 5.7 birds/km2, indicating a wild population of 3,000-6,500 birds (E. C. Enkerlin-Hoeflich in litt. 1994, Enkerlin-Hoeflich 1995). This compares with 25.2 birds/km2 reported in the 1970s (Castro 1976). Based on field surveys and ecological niche models generated with MaxEnt models, the species has lost potentially 57% of their former historical distribution, although records for the species were obtained from Nuevo León, Veracruz, where it it had previously been thought to have disappeared (Monterrubio-Rico 2012; Monterrubio-Rico et al. in press). The population recently established in urban areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (Texas), USA, is considered by some to consist of wild birds (T. Brush in litt. 2003). Introduced or feral populations are also established (and mostly increasing) in Florida and California (USA), Puerto Rico (to USA), O'ahu (Hawaii) and several parts of Mexico (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997).|
Puerto Rico; United States
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||61900|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1992-1994, estimated densities in one area in Mexico indicated a wild population of 3,000-6,500 birds (E. C. Enkerlin-Hoeflich in litt. 1994). This estimate roughly equates to 2,000-4,300 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Historic densities recorded for the species were 25.2 birds/km2 in the 1970s (Castro 1976), falling to 5.7 birds/km2 in one area in 1992-1994 (E. C. Enkerlin-Hoeflich in litt. 1994, Enkerlin-Hoeflich 1995), indicating a decline of up to 77.4% over c.20 years. The decline is suspected to be continuing at a rate exceeding 50% over ten years, owing to the ongoing threats of trapping and forest clearance.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2000-4300||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|