Alectoris barbara 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae

Scientific Name: Alectoris barbara (Reichenow, 1896)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Barbary Partridge
French Perdrix gambra
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Chad; Egypt; Gibraltar; Italy; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Spain; Tunisia; Western Sahara
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4930000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The European population is estimated at 7,500-20,000 pairs, which equates to 15,000-40,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms <5% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is approximately 300,000-800,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species is declining owing to over-hunting and, locally, habitat loss caused by agricultural intensification (del Hoyo et al. 1994). In Europe the population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:300000-800000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The following information refers only to the species's habitat use in Europe. The species is found in predominantly dry, open country with scrubby cover (Tucker and Heath 1994). It uses steep slopes, rocky areas and arid hillsides, stony terraces, unimproved agricultural land, open or degraded maquis and woodland, including open pine forest (Tucker and Heath 1994, McGowan and Kirwan 2013). The species lays between March and May although eggs have been reported in December on the Canary Islands (Clark 2006, McGowan and Kirwan 2013). It can lay six to twenty seven eggs (Znari 1998). It breeds earlier in the lowlands than in the mountains. In very dry years it may not breed at all in semi-arid habitats (McGowan and Kirwan 2013). The nest is a depression in the ground which is usually lined and sheltered by long grass, bushes or boulders (Madge and McGowan 2002, Mocci Demartis and Massoli-Novelli 1978). It has a varied diet but predominantly feeds on leaves, shoots, fruits and seeds of a wide range of grasses and herbs with insects such as ants forming an important supplement. The species is mainly sedentary (McGowan and Kirwan 2013).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat in Europe is hunting. In Sardinia regulatory measures exist but are not enforced due to a sufficient number of wardens. In the Canary Islands the remaining population is restocked annually to enable sport hunting (McGowan and Kirwan 2013), however this increases the risk if introducing disease and genetic contamination. In Europe, other threats are intensive use of pesticides, outbreaks of fire and the abandonment of cultivated land (Tucker and Heath 1994).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex I, II and III. Mace Lande: Safe. The reinforcing of populations continues, such as in the Canaries where local populations are restocked annually to accommodate sport hunting. In Gibraltar, over 200 birds hatched locally from eggs supplied from northern Morocco were released progressively in 2014; Prior to this habitat improvement measures, involving scrub clearance, and cat control, preceded the releases (McGowan and Kirwan 2013).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Proposed conservation actions in Europe include enforcing legislation where it exists and creating protected areas where shooting is banned to provide safe areas and preserve suitable habitat. In the Canaries a moratorium on hunting should be introduced for one or two years to allow numbers to recover. Low-intensity farming should be promoted to protect and restore suitable habitats (Tucker and Heath 1994).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Alectoris barbara. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22678707A85855433. . Downloaded on 18 July 2018.
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