|Scientific Name:||Aspius aspius|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Molecular and morphological data suggest that Aspius might have to be included in Leuciscus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats. However, locally threatened by river engineering projects.
|Range Description:||Large rivers draining to North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Baltic Sea (southern tributaries, Norway east of Oslo, southern Sweden, Kokemären drainage in southern Finland), Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Seas; Aegean Sea, from Maritza to Lake Volvi drainages. Absent in Black Sea basin south of Danube and Rioni (Georgia) drainages, but present in Turkey west of Ankara. Introduced in Rhine, Northern Dvina and Lake Balkhash (Asia). Identity of populations of Aral Sea remains uncertain.|
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Open water of large and mid-sized lowland rivers and large lakes. Spawns on gravel or submerged vegetation in fast-flowing water. Lake populations migrate to tributaries.
Lives more than 10 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-5 years. Reproductive success seems to be associated with low water level and high spring temperatures. Spawns more than one season, in March-early April (mid-May in Volga), when temperatures rise above 8°C (Rhine) or even less (4-6°C in Terek), at places with strong current. Spawning lasts about two weeks. Eggs adhere to gravel or submerged plants. Semi-anadromous individuals or populations (Terek) forage predominantly in estuaries and freshened parts of the sea, migrating to rivers only for spawning. Starts spawning migration in second half of October (Terek) and overwinters in lower part of river. Juveniles are gregarious predators; adults hunt in small groups or are solitary. Juveniles and adults feed predominantly on fish, especially on Alburnus alburnus or Osmerus eperlanus. Juveniles grow rapidly, reaching about 80-100 mm SL during first year. Regularly hybridizes with L. idus.
|Major Threat(s):||Locally threatened by river engineering projects.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is a (EU - Berne Convention) Natura 2000 species, requiring protection from range states.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Aspius aspius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 July 2014.|
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