|Scientific Name:||Tapirus bairdii|
|Species Authority:||(Gill, 1865)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2abcd+3bcde ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Garcìa, M., Jordan, C., O'Farril, G., Poot, C., Meyer, N., Estrada, N., Leonardo, R., Naranjo, E., Simons, Á., Herrera, A., Urgilés, C., Schank, C., Boshoff, L. & Ruiz-Galeano, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Castellanos, A., Cruz-Aldán, E., Foerster, C.R., González-Maya, J.F., Lira Torres , I., Lizcano, D.J., Matola, S., Samudio Jr, R. & Schipper, J.|
Tapirus bairdii continues to be listed as Endangered. Population declines are estimated to be greater than 50% in the past three generation (33 years) mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. It is estimated that around 70% of Central American forest areas have been lost through deforestation and alteration over the last 40 years (Primack et al. 1997), in addition the species has been consistently hunted throughout most its range. We therefore estimate that the population has declined by well over 50% in the past three generations. Causes of past population reduction have not ceased. It is suspected that in next three generations the population will decline by a further 70% from loss of habitat, fragmentation and hunting pressure. Range-wide habitat change is severely impacting and fragmenting populations of T. bairdii, which do not generally occupy human dominated or modified habitat types and suffers from persecution near human settlements. In addition there is evidence to suggest that infectious diseases may contribute to the decline of the species in the future as cases are now being found in the northern portion of the range where cattle are present. Outbreaks of disease have been reported in Guatemala and Costa Rica. The construction of a road through the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala and in other regions is likely to become a major problem for tapirs in that area. The construction of mega infrastructure (highways, dams, interoceanic canal) in different countries threatens the species, and may create additional genetic barriers. Finally severe droughts potentially as a result of climate change may have a future impact on tapir populations on the Selva Maya.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is known to occur in Southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, southern Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Republic of Panama, north-western Colombia (Chocò and Darien regions)(Restrepo and Betancourt 2008), and historically in El Salvador. Its current or historical presence is still uncertain in Ecuador. In Mexico, the Baird's Tapir is present in the following localities: Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo and potentially in Veracruz, Yucatan and Tabasco. In Belize T. bairdii is present in all districts while in Guatemala is present in the Department of Izabal, Petén, Alta Verapaz and Quiché, and in the Biosphere Reserve of Sienna de las Minas. In Honduras is present in several localities in the Department of Atlàntida, Cortés, El Paraiso, Gracias a Dios, Olancho and Yoro. In Nicaragua the Baird's Tapir is limited primarily to Caribbean Coast lowland tropical fortest, swamps, and seasonally flooded forests, the San Juan River, and the Bosawàs Biosphere Reserve. In Costa Rica is present in the three mountain ranges and main protected areas in lowlands (Castellanos et al. 2008). The Baird's Tapir is recorded in Republic of Panama in the provinces of Chiriqui, Bocas del Toro, Veraguas, Coclé, Colon, Panama, Guna Yala and Darién, and to sum up to the forests along the Atlantic coast.
Native:Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
Regionally extinct:El Salvador
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are recent reports of Baird's Tapir population in the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua (Jordan et al. 2010) and Panama (Meyer et al. 2013) where population's status were unconfirmed or thought to be extinct. Despite these new records, populations of this species are expected to be in a continuing decline due to the existing threats in the region. Also, a new report reveals the extreme rarity of the species in central Panama where it was thought to be resident (N. Meyer pers. comm.).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The Baird’s Tapir is found in forested areas with ponds and streams (wet tropical rainforest, tropical subdeciduous forest and montane cloud forests), palm swamps, paramo, mangrove, riparian forest, and successional vegetation (caused by natural disturbances), as well as in narrow oak- forest strips covering the top of medium-altitude mountains; from sea level to 3,620 m (Brooks et al. 1997, Naranjo and Vaughan 2000).
|Generation Length (years):||11|
|Use and Trade:||This species is hunted locally for food and to be trade as pets. It is also hunted for sport in Costa Rica.|
The main factors of Baird’s population decline remain habitat destruction and localized hunting (Castellanos et al. 2008, Brooks et al. 1997). The species low reproductive rate makes it more vulnerable to these threats (Brooks et al. 1997).
This species occurs in several protected areas throughout its range including some large Biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife refuges, comarcas (indigenous territories in Panama which make up a large part of tapir’s habitat), and other small to medium sized reserves. There are also important suitable habitat patches with no protected status in Mexico (Mendoza et al. 2012), Belize (Waters and Ulloa 2007), Guatemala and Nicaragua, and possibly in the other countries.
|Citation:||Garcìa, M., Jordan, C., O'Farril, G., Poot, C., Meyer, N., Estrada, N., Leonardo, R., Naranjo, E., Simons, Á., Herrera, A., Urgilés, C., Schank, C., Boshoff, L. & Ruiz-Galeano, M. 2016. Tapirus bairdii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21471A45173340.Downloaded on 09 December 2016.|
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