Tamandua tetradactyla


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Tamandua tetradactyla
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name/s:
English Southern Tamandua, Northern Tamandua, Collared Anteater, Tamandua, Lesser Anteater
French Tamandou À Quatre Doigts, Fourmilier À Collier, Tamandou Tétradactyle
Spanish Brazo Fuerte, Hormiguero De Collar, Oso Melero, Tamanduá, Tamandúa De Collar
Taxonomic Notes: There are four subspecies of T. tetradactyla (Gardner 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-05-24
Assessor/s: Miranda, F. & Meritt, D.A.Jr.
Reviewer/s: Fallabrino, A. & Superina, M.
Contributor/s: Fallabrino, A., Tirira, D., Arteaga, M. & Rogel, T.
T. tetradactyla is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
2006 Least Concern (IUCN 2006)
2006 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:T. tetradactyla is found to the east of the Andes from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad Island, and the Guianas (French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname), south to northern Uruguay and northern Argentina. It ranges from sea level to 2,000 m asl (Emmons and Feer 1990).
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: T. tetradactyla is a relatively common species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: T. tetradactyla is adaptable to a variety of habitats, including gallery forests adjacent to savannas, and lowland and montane moist tropical rain forest (Eisenberg 1989). Typically, this solitary species has pale tan or golden fur with a black vest, but uniformly tan to black coloration also occurs (Wetzel 1985). It mainly feeds on ants and termites, but also attacks bees nests to eat honey (Emmons and Feer 1990). The female gives birth to a single young once per year (Silveira 1968).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this small anteater, although in some portions of its range it is hunted for meat, by domestic dogs, or sold as a pet species (Aguiar and Fonseca 2008; Noss et al. 2008; D.A. Meritt Jr. pers. comm. 2010). Habitat loss and degradation, wildfires, and road traffic represent a threat in some areas. In Uruguay, T. tetradactyla is affected by habitat loss due to the increase in eucalyptus plantations (A. Fallabrino pers. comm. 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: T. tetradactyla is present in a number of protected areas. Further systematic studies on T. tetradactyla are needed to investigate population densities and dynamics in different parts of its range.

Bibliography [top]

Agüero, J. A., Díaz, J. V. and González, D. 2003. Presencia y características del hábitat asociadas a Tamandua tetradactyla en las Sierras de los Llanos de La Rioja, Argentina. In: SAREM (ed.), XVIII Jornadas Argentinas de Mastozoología, pp. 81. La Rioja, Argentina.

Aguiar, J. M. and da Fonseca, G. A. B. 2008. Conservation status of the Xenarthra. In: S. F. Vizcaino and W. J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 215-231. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Alberico, M., Cadena, A., Hernández-Camacho, J. and Muñoz-Saba, Y. 2000. Mamíferos (Synapsida: Theria) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 1(1): 43-75.

Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia: Taxonomy and distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1?652.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Engstrom, M. and Lim, B. 2000. Checklist of the mammals of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Fallabrino, A. and Castiñeira, E. 2006. Situacion de los Edentados en Uruguay. Edentata 7: 1-3.

Fallabrino, A., Hernández, D., Andrade, M. J., Castro, J., Coitiño, H., Cosse, M., Arevalo, A. P. and Montenegro, F. 2009. Status of the xenarthras in Uruguay. In: GIB - IADIZA (ed.), 10th International Mammalogical Congress (IMC10), pp. 210. Mendoza, Argentina.

Fra, E. A., Salinas, R. S. and Barrionuevo, C. A. 2007. Acerca de la presencia y distribución del oso melero (Tamandua tetradactyla en la provincia de Catamarca. In: SAREM (ed.), XXI Jornadas Argentinas de Mastozoología, pp. 200-201. Tafí del Valle, Tucumán.

Gardner, A. L. 1993. Order Xenarthra. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition, pp. 63-68. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Gardner, A. L. 2005. Order Pilosa. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Gardner, A. L. 2007. Magnorder Xenarthra. In: Gardner, A. L. (ed.), Mammals of South America, pp. 127-176. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Noss, A. J., Cuellar, R. L. and Cuellar, E. 2008. Exploitation of xenarthrans by the Guarani-Isoseno indigenous people of the Bolivian Chaco: comparisons with hunting by other indigenous groups in Latin America, and implications for conservation. In: S. F. Vizcaino and W. J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 244-254. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Pacheco, V., de Macedo, H., Vivar, E., Ascorra, C. F., Arana-Cardó, R. and Solari, S. 1995. Lista anotada de los mamíferos peruanos. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology 2: 1-35.

Sanborn, C. C. 1953. Mammals from the Departments of Cuzco and Puno, Peru. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Serie A, Zoología 12: 1?8.

Silveira, E. K. P. da. 1968. Notas sobre a história natural do tamanduá mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla chiriquensis J. A. Allen 1904, Myrmecophagidae), com referências à fauna do Istmo do Panamá. Vellozia 6: 9-31.

Smith, P. 2009. FAUNA Paraguay Handbook of the Mammals of Paraguay. Vol 2: Xenarthra. Available at: www.faunaparaguay.com.

Tirira, D. 1999. Mamiferos del Ecaudor. Museo de Zoologia, Centro de Biodiversidad y Ambiente, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Ecaudor and Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana, Quito, Ecuador.

Torres, R., Monguillot, J., Bruno, G., Michelutti, P. and Ponce, A. 2009. Ampliación del límite austral de la distribución del oso melero (Tamandua tetradactyla) en la Argentina. Nótulas Faunísticas - Segunda Serie 39: 1-5.

Vizcaíno, S. F., Abba, A. M. and García Esponda, C. M. 2006. Magnaorden Xenarthra. In: R. M. Barquez, M. M. Díaz and R. A. Ojeda (eds), Mamíferos de Argentina: Sistemática y Distribución, pp. 46-56. Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina.

Wetzel, R. M. 1982. Systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation of South American edentates. In: M. A. Mares and H. H. Genoways (eds), Mammalian biology in South America, pp. 345-375. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Wetzel, R. M. 1985. The identification and distribution of recent Xenarthra (=Edentata). In: Montgomery, G. G. (ed.), The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas, pp. 5-21. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Citation: Miranda, F. & Meritt, D.A.Jr. 2011. Tamandua tetradactyla. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.
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