Ephedra foeminea 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Gnetopsida Ephedrales Ephedraceae

Scientific Name: Ephedra foeminea Forssk.
Ephedra campylopoda C.A.Mey.
Ephedra fragilis Desf. subsp. campylopoda (C.A.Mey.) K.Richt.
Ephedra macedonica Kosanin
Ephedra campylopoda C.A.Mey.
Ephedra fragilis subsp. campylopoda (C.A.Mey.) K.Richt.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-17
Assessor(s): Bell, A. & Bachman, S.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.
E. foeminea is widespread and has a stable population at present. No significant threats have been identified so a rating of Least Concern is given.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Distributed across the southeastern Mediterranean from Italy and Greece to Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. Extends further south to Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. More recently it has been reported from northeast Africa in Eritrea and Djibouti (Freitag and Maier-Stolte 2003). A disjunct population from Libya was also reported in Browicz (1991). Occurs from sea level up to 2,600 m.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Israel; Italy; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Yemen
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Is rare to abundant across its range.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A climbing or scrambling shrub, found in a variety of habitats from sparse maquis, phrygana to Mediterranean woodlands (including Juniperus phoenicea). Occurs on cliffs, in ravines and on bare rocks. Flowers from March to November and fruits August to January.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known at present.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Throughout its range it overlaps numerous protected areas. Samples can be found growing in at least ten botanic gardens and samples have been collected for ex situ conservation as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Berkeley Natural History Museum. 2009. Berkeley Natural History Museum database. Available at: http://bnhm.berkeley.edu/query/index.php?ucbg=true.

Browicz, K. (ed.). 1991. Chorology of Trees and Shrubs in South-west Asia and Adjacent Regions. Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw.

Caveney, S., Charlet, D.A., Freitag, H., Maier-Stolte, M. and Starratt, A.N. 2001. New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae). American Journal of Botany 88(7): 1199-1208.

Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 1989. The Ephedra species of P.Forsskål: identify and typification. Taxon 38(4): 545-556.

Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 2003. The genus Ephedra in NE Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 58: 415-426.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Karagiannakidou, V. and Raus, T. 1996. Vascular plants from Mount Chortialis (Makedonia, Greece). Willdenowia 25(2): 487-559.

Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx.

WCSP. 2013. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.

Citation: Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra foeminea. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201710A9171016. . Downloaded on 24 February 2018.
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