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Rhinopithecus roxellana

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Rhinopithecus roxellana
Species Authority: (Milne-Edwards, 1870)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Golden Snub-nosed Monkey, Sichuan Golden Snub-nosed Monkey
Taxonomic Notes: The three presently recognized subspecies differ from one another mainly in tail length, as well as in certain features of skeletal structure and width of dental arch (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ac ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is listed as Endangered as there has been a decline of over 50% in the last 3 generations (approximately 40 years) due to forest loss. This decline is continuing, though in some areas the populations are declining at a lower rate.
History:
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1988 Vulnerable (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Rare (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in west-central China (Ganssu, Hubei, Shaanxi, and Sichuan provinces) (Groves 2001).

Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana
Occurs in western Sichuan (Qingchuan, Pingwu, Songpan, Beichuan, Nanping, Maoxian, Heishui, Wenchuan, Baoxing, Tianquan, Lushan, Luding counties, on Qionglaishan Mountain, Mingshan Mountain, Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountain), southern Gansu (Wenxian county in Mingshan Mountain) and southern Shaanxi (Ningqian country) (L. Yongcheng pers. comm.).

Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis
Occurs in southern Shaanxi (Qinling Mountains, including the counties of Taibai, Zhouzhi, Foping, Yangxian, Ningshaan) (Wang et al. 1998; Li et al. 2001).

Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis
Occurs in western Hubei and northeastern Sichuan (Shennongjia forest region of Daba Mountain, in Fangxian, Xingshan, and Batong counties) (Wang et al. 1998; Li unpubli. 2006).
Countries:
Native:
China (Gansu, Hubei, Shanxi, Sichuan)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana
There are about 10,000 individuals in 100 troops in Sichuan (6,000 individuals in Mingshan Mountain, 3,500 in Qionglaishan Mountain, and 500 in Daxiangling and Xiaoxianling Mountain), about 800 individuals in 8 troops in Gansu, and about 170-200 individuals in 1 or 2 troops in Shaanxi (Zhang 1995; Jiang 2005; Li unpubl. 2006).

Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis
There are approximately 3,800-4,000 total individuals belonging to 39 troops (Li et al. 2001). Around half of these are mature individuals. Since the mid 1990s, the population appears to have stabilized.

Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis
There are about 600-1,000 individuals in 5-6 troops (Ren et al. 1998).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found only in montane forests where snow cover can last for up to six months of the year (Allen 1938; Davison 1982). In the Qinling Mountains it is found in mixed deciduous-broadleaf forests from 1,400 to 2,800 m (Gao and Liu 1995; Li et al. 2001). It can also occur in other forest types, including mixed conifer-broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf. Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana and Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis are found more often in mixed conifer and deciduous broadleaf forests. It is semi-terrestrial, diurnal, and folivorous, but will also eat seeds, fruit, bark, insects, and small vertebrates.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Rhinopithecus roxellana
The major threat for the species is forest loss due to agricultural expansion, especially outside of protected areas.

Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana
The major threat is habitat loss. Secondarily, there is a serious threat from continued illegal hunting of this subspecies. There is also harassment owing to tourist activities, including the herding of troops for tourists to view.

Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis
In the Qinling Mountains tourism is having a significant negative impact, mainly due to the creation of roads and other infrastructure. Before 1990, there were threats from illegal hunting, but this has stopped due to increased government protection.

Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis
There is a serious threat to this subspecies from tourism-related activities, along with continued habitat loss. Before 1990, there were threats from illegal hunting, but this has stopped due to increased government protection.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and as Category I of the Chinese Wildlife Protection Act, 1989.
Protected areas where this species definitely known to occur include: Baihe Nature Reserve, Changqing Nature Reserve, Foping Nature Reserve, Laoxiancheng Nature Reserve, Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Taibai Nature Reserve, Wanglang Nature Reserve, Zhouzhi Nature Reserve (M. Richardson pers. comm.), although according to L. Yongcheng (pers. comm.) it is to be found in a much larger number of nature reserves. It is almost never seen in captivity outside of Asia (M. Richardson pers. comm.).
Citation: Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M. 2008. Rhinopithecus roxellana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 April 2014.
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