Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Tarsiidae

Scientific Name: Tarsius wallacei
Species Authority: Merker, Driller, Dahruddin, Wirdateti, Sinaga, Perwitasari-Farajallah & Shekelle, 2010
Common Name(s):
English Wallace’s Tarsier
Taxonomic Notes: Merker et al. (2010) described this species, Tarsius wallacei, from the Isthmus of Palu and from a small area southwest of Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has unique morphological and bioacoustic traits as well as mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal, and microsatellite DNA patterns that clearly separate it from other tarsiers. The species includes the T. tarsier population referred to by Shekelle et al. (1997) as “Tinombo form”.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-13
Assessor(s): Merker, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.

Listed as Data Deficient as Tarsius wallacei was recently described, and its population status cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. Additional surveys are needed.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species occupies a discontinuous range in the province of Central Sulawesi. Northern and southern populations are isolated from each other by the Palu Bay, the city of Palu, and the southern parts of the Isthmus of Palu, an area now inhabited by the parapatric species T. dentatus. The current evidence indicates that the northern population occurs within the following geographic limits: an unknown line just west of the village of Tomini to the northeast (about 120º30'E), the coastlines of the Isthmus of Palu to the east and tho the west, and an unknown line between the village of Ampibabo and Marantale to the south (about 0º30'S). Along its northern border, this population borders the “Sejoli form” sensu Shekelle et al. (1997). At its southern limit, this population borders T. dentatus (Merker et al. 2010).

The southern population occurs southwest to west of Palu, it is definitely known from the type locality Uwemanje only and probably occurs in a very small area from Uwemanje to the west. Approximately 9 km to the south T. dentatus is found, and 24 km to the northwest, T. lariang (Merker et al. 2010).

The two populations are distinguished as T. wallacei Tinombo form (northern) and T. wallacei Uwemanje form (southern).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The isolated southern population of T. wallacei occurs in a very small area of probably no more than 5x10 km (Merker et al. 2010). Satellite images suggest an even much smaller area of occupancy in this region and thus, although population estimates are still lacking, a critical status of this stock is conceivable.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

The species occurs in primary, secondary, and degraded forest habitats. So far, little is known on the ecology of T. wallacei. Given the morphological and ecological similarity of the species to other Sulawesi lowland tarsiers, this nocturnal primate is expected to feed on live animal prey with insects as the main component of its prey and to spend daylight hours in holes or crevices of strangling figs (Ficus spp.).


Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

As other tarsier species, T. wallacei faces habitat loss and degradation effected by conversion of rainforest to cash crop plantations. In light of a very small range of the Uwemanje form, local policy-making in one or a few villages may be of high impact on this stock.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The range of the northern population of T. wallacei includes Gunung Sojol Nature Reserve.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Merker, S., Driller, C., Dahruddin, H., Wirdateti, Sinaga, W., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D. and Shekelle, M. 2010. Tarsius wallacei: A new tarsier species from Central Sulawesi occupies a discontinuous range. International Journal of Primatology 31(6): 1107-1122.

Shekelle, M., Leksono, S. M., Ichwan, L. L. S. and Masala, Y. 1997. The natural history of the tarsiers of North and central Sulawesi. Sulawesi Primate Newsletter 4(2): 4-11.

Citation: Merker, S. 2013. Tarsius wallacei. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T195277A8954009. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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