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Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES SERRANIDAE

Scientific Name: Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos
Species Authority: (Tschudi, 1846)
Common Name/s:
English Grape-eye Seabass, Serrano Ojo de Uva
Spanish Apañado, Robalo Ñato
Synonym/s:
Plectropoma macrophthalmos Tschudi, 1846

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-21
Assessor/s: Smith-Vaniz,B., Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G., Merlen, G., Allen, G., Edgar, G. & Rivera, F.
Reviewer/s: Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is endemic to Ecuador, Peru and Chile. There have been observed localized declines of up to 75% in some parts of its range, such as in the Galápagos. However, it is not known if these declines are occuring throughout its range due to reduction of prey (anchoveta), overfishing, or the increase in frequency and duration of El Niño events. More research is needed to determine this species' population status and the effect of suspected major threats. It is listed as Data Deficient.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Ecuador to Chile, including the Galápagos islands.
Countries:
Native:
Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for this species. This species is occasionally seen in fish markets in Peru and Ecudaor. However, the numbers sighted in markets appears to be declining substantially, and the population has also likely been affected by a decline in prey (anchoveta) in Peru. Between 1998 and 2001, the catches in Galápagos have declined by approximately 75%, while in Ecuador, they have declined by more than 50% between 1992 and 2007 (Merlen pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This pelagic reef-associated species is found in rocky substrata from 10-55 m, and in rocky and coral reefs. It feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Grove and Lavenberg 1997).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species does not have major commercial importance, but it supports subsistence fisheries. It is targeted by artisan fisheries in Galápagos, southern Ecuador and Peru. However, harvest levels and effects on population trends is unknown. It is not known if declines observed in Ecuador and in markets in Peru are due to decreased achoveta prey availability (Jarre-Teichmann 1998), associated El Niño events (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004, Edgar et al. 2009), or overharvesting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region.However, not all Marine Protected Areas are considered to mediate major threats to the ecosystems and many tropical eastern Pacific endemics are found in habitats that are not currently protected within Marine Protected Areas.
Citation: Smith-Vaniz,B., Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G., Merlen, G., Allen, G., Edgar, G. & Rivera, F. 2010. Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.
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