|Scientific Name:||Engraulis ringens|
|Species Authority:||Jenyns, 1842|
Anchoviella tapirulus (Cope, 1877)
Engraulis pulchellus Girard, 1855
Engraulis tapirulus Cope, 1877
Stolephorus tapirulus (Cope, 1877)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
Although this species is under high pressure from fisheries and may be affected by El Niño, it has a wide distribution which includes Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern. However, continued monitoring of harvest levels and population trends is recommended to ensure that these pressures do not threaten this species.
|Range Description:||In the southeastern Pacific, this species is found from Ecuador to Chile, and can be found in the Galapagos islands as a vagrant.|
Native:Argentina; Chile; Ecuador; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is the most heavily exploited fish in world history, yielding 13,059,900 t in 1971, but with great fluctuations and a decline since that year. After the drastic reduction in the harvests of the 80s, influenced by the strongest El Niño of the century (1982-83), in the 90s the harvests began to recover and peaked in 1994 with 12,520,611 t. The fishes are recruited to the fishery at about eight cm standard length at the age of five or six months. They are caught by purse seine (vessels known as bolicheras in Peru). Common fishing techniques are midwater otter trawling and small pelagic midwater trawling. A good summary of the dynamics of this fishery is given by Schaeffer (1967) and the state of the fishery is monitored in publications by the Institute del Mar del Peru in cooperation with FAO (in Bulletins and Reports of the Institute). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 8,723,265 t. The countries with the largest harvests were Peru (6,740,225 t) and Chile (1,983,040 t) (FAO-FIGI 2001).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a pelagic, oceanodromous fish that occurs mainly within 80 km of the coast, forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters. It is found todepths of 50 m. It is a filter-feeder that is entirely dependent on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current and its northern distribution is limited in Peruvian waters in years when a tongue of warmer and less saline surface water extends southward over the northbound coastal Peruvian Current (the so-called El Niño phenomenon) (FAO-FIGIS 2001, Chen et al. 2004). In some studies, diatoms constituted as much as 98% of the diet of this species. The preferred climate of this species is subtropical (Castro and Hernandez 2000).
Eggs are ellipsoidal and this species breeds throughout the year along the entire coast of Peru. The major spawning is in the winter/spring (July to September) and a lesser one is in the summer (February and March). It also spawns throughout year off of Chile, with peaks in winter (May to July) and the end of spring (especially December). This species matures at about one year (about 10 cm standard length). It attains about eight cm as its standard length in six months, 10.5 cm in 12 months and 12 cm in 18 months, with a longevity of about three years (FAO-FIGIS 2001).
This is the most heavily exploited fish in world history (FAO-FIGIS 2001). Among other threats, global warming is probably affecting the fisheries of this species (Soto 2002).
This is a highly commercial species, mainly utilized as fish meal. The harvest in 1990 in Peru was 4,017,106 t and in Chile was more than 500,000 t. Seines were used as the main method of harvesting (Watson and Sandknop 1996).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the tropical eastern Pacific region.|
|Citation:||Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J. 2010. Engraulis ringens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 March 2015.|