|Scientific Name:||Paralabrax albomaculatus|
|Species Authority:||(Jenyns, 1840)|
Gracila albomaculata Jenyns, 1840
Serranus albomaculatus Jenyns, 1840
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Robertson, R., Allen, G., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Edgar, G., Rivera, F. & Merlen, G.|
|Reviewer/s:||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Although it is present in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area, it is targeted by commercial fisheries. A 70% decline in population over the past 10 years (less than 3 generation lengths) is inferred based on a severe decrease in fisheries landings with continued effort between 1998 and 2001 in the Galápagos. It is listed as Endangered.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. However, a substantial decline (approximately 70%) in population numbers occurred between 1998 and 2001, as inferred from landings of fishes in the Galápagos with no evidence of a decrease in fishing effort (Danulat and Edgar 2002).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This reef-associated species inhabits rocky reefs and nearby sand patches. Depth of occurrence varies within the archipelago according to temperature, with preference for cooler water (Reck 1983) but ranges between 10-75 m. The diet consists of mobile benthic crustaceans, octupus, squid, and cuttle fishes.
Although exact generation length is not known, age of first maturity is estimated to be between 1-2 years and longevity is estimated to be about 10-12 years based on Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Andrews et al. 2005), and therefore generation length is conservatively estimated to be 5 years.
|Major Threat(s):||In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g., the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and associated offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). This deep water species is unlikely to be affected by oceanographic changes caused by ENSO/climate change events. However, juveniles of this cool water species have primarily been observed in relatively shallow water including near mangroves, where they may be affected by increased temperatures during severe El Niño events.|
|Conservation Actions:||Although this species' entire range is in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area, it is still subject to active commercial fishing.|
|Citation:||Robertson, R., Allen, G., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Edgar, G., Rivera, F. & Merlen, G. 2010. Paralabrax albomaculatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 April 2014.|
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