Propithecus perrieri 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Indriidae

Scientific Name: Propithecus perrieri
Species Authority: Lavauden, 1931
Common Name(s):
English Perrier’s Sifaka
Synonym(s):
Propithecus diadema subspecies perrieri Lavauden, 1931
Taxonomic Source(s): Mayor, M. I., Sommer, J. A., Houck, M. L., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Wright, P. C., Ingram, C., Engel, S. R. and Louis, E. E. 2004. Specific status of Propithecus spp. International Journal of Primatology 25: 875-900.
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly considered a subspecies of P. diadema, but elevated to full species status by Groves (2001) and Mayor et al. (2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

This species has a very small remaining total population of about 500 individuals. The number of mature individuals is about 125 and is ontinuing to decline. There is a restricted population structure with 90-100% of all mature individuals being in one subpopulation. The species is threatened mainly by habitat destruction through slash-and-burn agriculture, but also by hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered. 

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1990 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has a very restricted range in northern Madagascar that includes the Analamerana Massifs. It was formerly recorded in the Ankarana forests (where it may not have been resident), but has not been recorded at all during recent surveys, although animals were observed in forest fragments between Analamerana and Ankarana (Banks et al. 2007). Ranges from sea level to 400 m.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

This is one of the rarest and most endangered lemurs (and indeed of all the world's primates). The total population is less than 500 individuals, and the effective breeding population is only approximately 125 individuals. 

Mathew Banks and James Herrera (pers. comm. 2013) estimate the following population densities at the following sites: Ambatovazaha - 45.73 individulas/km2; Ampasimaty - 3.54 individulas/km2; Ampondrabe - 1.48 individulas/km2; Andampibe - 34.85 individulas/km2; Andrafiambany - 7.91 individulas/km2; Madiromasina - 5.06 individulas/km2; Mahanoro - 6.5 individulas/km2; Antsahabe – 0 individulas/km2. The overall mean of densities estimated at each site separately is 8.78 individulas/km(these results were generated from using a global detection probability, estimated from all the data within the truncation distance, not for each site separately).

Notably, population densities of Sifakas on sandstone soil are more than twice the population density found on limestone soils.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0-250Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is an inhabitant of tropical dry forest. The diet consists mainly of leaves (both young and mature), unripe fruits, stems, and flowers. At least a dozen different varieties of plants, representing nine families, have been identified as food sources. Groups range in size from two to six individuals and home ranges approach 30 ha (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Densities of fossa are extremely high in this region, and this carnivore could be having a negative impact on lemur populations.

 

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Slash-and-burn activities resulting in forest loss represents the greatest threat to this species. Additional threats include fires set to increase livestock pasture, the cutting of trees to produce charcoal, forest destruction caused by itinerant miners, and hunting. During the dry season, they drink water on the ground, and when they move between forest patches they move along the ground where their conspicuous colouration makes them vulnerable to predators and hunters.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. One of the rarest and most endangered lemurs (and indeed of all the world's primates). The total population could be as few as 500, and the effective breeding population only 125 individuals. The only protected area in which it is known to occur is the Analamerana Special Reserve. A small number may still be found as well in the eastern section of Ankarana National Park, which is connected through a series of forest patches to populations at Andriafiamena and Analamerana. It has recently been seen in unprotected forest patches between Analamerana and Ankarana, and is present in the Andavakoera Classified Forest, but probably in very low numbers. There is an urgent need for a full-time, long-term scientific presence in the Analamerana Special Reserve, as well as an expansion of this protected area to include the forests of Andriafiamena and a connection to Ankarana. This effort should also include an education campaign in the region, as well as surveys in nearby forest patches to look for any other populations. This species is not being kept in captivity. Research into sifaka captivity is needed to establish ex situ conservation for this species. It is important to note that population densities of sifakas on sandstone soil are more than twice the population density found on limestone soils. This should enter into the conservation equation and protecting sandstone sites should be a priority.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Banks, M. A., Ellis, E. R., Antonioand Wright, P. C. 2007. Global population size of a critically endangered lemur, Perrier's sifaka. Animal Conservation 10: 254-262.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mayor, M. I., Sommer, J. A., Houck, M. L., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Wright, P. C., Ingram, C., Engel, S. R. and Louis, E. E. 2004. Specific status of Propithecus spp. International Journal of Primatology 25: 875-900.

Meyers, D. and Ratsirarson, J. 1989. Distribution and conservation of two endangered sifakas in northern Madagascar. Primate Conservation 10: 82–87.

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Petter, J-J., Albignac, R. and Rumpler, Y. 1977. Mammiferes lemuriens (Primates Prosimians).


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Propithecus perrieri. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T18361A16116407. . Downloaded on 07 February 2016.
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