Camptostemon philippinense 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malvales Malvaceae

Scientific Name: Camptostemon philippinense (S.Vidal) Becc.
Taxonomic Notes: This species name has three different spellings (N. Duke pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-07
Assessor(s): Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)
This species is very rare and has a limited and patchy distribution in Indonesia and the Philippines. It is highly threatened by the removal of mangrove area for fish and shrimp aquaculture, and coastal development throughout its range. It is estimated that there are less than 2,500 mature individuals remaining and there has been a least 30% decline of mangrove area within this species range since 1980 (one generation length). It is listed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is patchily distributed in Indonesia (Borneo and Sulawesi), and the Philippines, including Murcielagos Bay in Zamboanga.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Philippines
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a rare species with very restricted distribution. There are very few individuals, even in areas where it is found. In the Philippines, it is estimated that there are less than 1,000 mature individuals. In the Indonesian part of the range it has been estimated that there are less than 200 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1200
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in the low intertidal region along tidal inlet channels. It stands along tidal creeks in muddy and sandy subtrates. It is sympatric with Camptostemon schultzii on Halmahera, Indonesia.
Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is sometimes harvested for fuelwood, construction materials, and other household goods.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is highly threatened by removal of mangrove areas to create fish and shrimp ponds in the Philippines, and thorughout its restricted range. It is also subject to localized cutting. It is estimated that at 30% of mangrove area has been lost in countries within this species range over a 25 year period (1980-2005) (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures specific to this species. Protected areas that include this species should be established, and re-introduction programmes initiated.

Citation: Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Camptostemon philippinense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178808A7612909. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided