Contomastix vittata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Teiidae

Scientific Name: Contomastix vittata (Boulenger, 1902)
Synonym(s):
Ameiva vittata (Boulenger, 1902)
Cnemidophorus vittatus Boulenger, 1902
Taxonomic Source(s): Harvey, M.B., Ugueto, G.N. and Gutberlet Jr., R.L. 2012. Review of Teiid morphology with a revised taxonomy and phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1-156.
Taxonomic Notes: This species may be synonymous with Contomastix leachei (R. Langstroth pers. comm. 2016).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2014-02-25
Assessor(s): Muñoz, A.
Reviewer(s): Caicedo, J.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Powney, G., Hanson, S. & Langstroth, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): NatureServe
Justification:
Contomastix vittata has been assessed as Vulnerable because of its limited extent of occurrence (14,900 km²), it has only been found in four locations, and its natural habitat is suffering degradation from several causes. Conservation measures, such as the restoration of the natural habitat and the establishment of protected areas, should be carried out within this species' range.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Departments of Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and Potosí, Bolivia. It has an elevational range from 1,471 m to 2,800 m (Harvey et al. 2012, A. Muñoz unpublished data).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:4Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1471
Upper elevation limit (metres):2800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Until recently this species was thought to be extinct following failures to rediscover it at the type locality by R. Langstroth and A. Munoz, as the species was known from only a single locality and had not been recorded for a century (R. Langstroth pers. comm. 2016, Mendoza 2010]. While it has now been discovered in several additional localities in surrounding towns, as well as Potosi and Chuquisaca, it appears to occur at low densities relative to other lizard species in the region (Mendoza 2010).

This species is locally uncommon in appropriate habitat. Recent surveys have found more juveniles than adults. At most sites surveyed, only 1-3 individuals are seen. The habitat where the species occurs is rapidly being degraded and lost, suggesting a declining population.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Yungas Forest. It is a diurnal species with semi fossorial habits, observed in rocky areas with presence of shrubs such as Acacia and Prosopis. (Muñoz and Rivas 2009). Can occur in rocky areas within pasture land.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Each year during Holy Week, local inhabitants catch and sacrifice this species to absolve them of their sins.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The natural habitat of this species is threatened by the expansion of urban areas, deforestation for firewood collection, and from agricultural expansion (A. Muñoz and D. Embert pers. comm. 2014). The species is also caught and killed for local religious customs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. The species has been assessed as Vulnerable in the latest edition of the Bolivian Red Book, using the MEGA evaluation criteria (Cortez 2009). There is an urgent need for the restoration of this species' habitat. Conservation measures, such as the establishment of protected areas, should also be used to prevent further habitat loss occurring within the species' range. Further research and monitoring of the population, distribution, biology and ecology, and threats to this species should be carried out.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Cortez, C. 2009. Reptiles. Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 225-299. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua 2009, La Paz, Bolivia.

Dirksen, L. and De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215.

Embert, D. 2007. Distribution, diversity and conservation status of Bolivian Reptiles. Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms University.

Harvey, M.B., Ugueto, G.N. and Gutberlet Jr., R.L. 2012. Review of Teiid morphology with a revised taxonomy and phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1-156.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Mendoza, D.P. 2010. Patrones de distribución de la herpetofauna de los bosques secos interandinos de Bolivia. Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Mayor de San Simón.

Muñoz, A. and Rivas, R. 2009. Ameiva vittata Boulenger, 1902. Squamata - Teiidae. In: L.F. Aguirre, R. Aguayo, J. Balderrama, C. Cortez, and T. Tarifa (eds), Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 277-278. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz, Bolivia.

Vance, T. 1978. The identity of Cnemidophorus vittatus Boulenger (Reptilia, lacertilia, Teiidae) with a redescription of the holotype. Journal of Herpetology 12(1): 100-102.


Citation: Muñoz, A. 2017. Contomastix vittata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T178408A50957512. . Downloaded on 14 December 2017.
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