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Brycon amazonicus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII CHARACIFORMES CHARACIDAE

Scientific Name: Brycon amazonicus
Species Authority: (Spix & Agassiz, 1829)
Common Name(s):
Spanish Sábalo, Sábalo cola roja
Synonym(s):
Brycon capito Cope, 1872
Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869)
Brycon erythropterum (Cope, 1872)
Brycon siebenthalae iquitensis Nakashima, 1941
Megalobrycon cephalus Günther, 1869
Megalobrycon erythropterum Cope, 1872

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Reis, R & Lima, F.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)
Justification:
This species is very abundant and widespread. Although possible over-exploited in parts of its range, B. amazonicus is not threatened overall, especially as aquaculture farms for this species are increasing. A Least Concern assessment has therefore been made.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread in western Amazon basin and also in the Rio Orinoco and in the River Essequibo in Guyana.
Countries:
Native:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Guyana; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: B. amazonicus is the most widespread and abundant species of matrinxa (common name).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: B. amazonicus is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species that inhabits streams and lakes. The larvae of B. amazonicus are found in the main stem of the Amazon River, and possibly in other high-nutrient tributaries. Juveniles live in the adjacent floodplain, mostly under the floating macrophytes (floating or submerged aquatic plants)). Adults are distributed throughout the floodplains, including the flooded forests of white and black water rivers.

The migration of this species is complex. Near Manaus, B. amazonicus joins multi-species schools and migrates downriver from the Negro River to spawn in the Amazon River in December and January, as water levels there begin to rise. A similar pattern was also observed for Brycon sp. in the Madeira River. The embryos and larvae develop while drifting in the Amazon River, and probably get washed into the white water floodplains. After spawning (February to March) the adult fish return to the black-water tributaries. Later in the year (May to August) these fish move downstream again from the Negro River or other nutrient-poor tributaries into the Amazon or Madeira rivers, where they remain until the end of the wet season in September. At this time, they move upstream again to the next nutrient-poor tributary and into forest streams, where they spend the dry season before the next spawning migration (Araujo-Lima and Ruffino 2004).

Plant material is an important part of the diet of adult Brycon species; and thus these fish play a role in the dispersal of plants whose fruits they eat (Berra 2001).
Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Brycon amazonicus is an extremely important fishery resource in the Amazonian region and is also considered as one of the main cultivated fish species in Brazil (Wasko et al., 2004). This species is becoming increasingly popular with pay-to-fish outlets because of its sporting characteristics, the taste of its flesh, and the ease with which it can be reared in captivity (Romagosa et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is very important in fisheries in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia. It is also stocked in aquaculture farms in Brazil and Venezuela. It is certainly not a threatened species, even though probably over-exploited in part of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place although research is needed into the localised threat of over-exploitation.

Citation: Reis, R & Lima, F. 2009. Brycon amazonicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 July 2014.
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