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Chaetodon citrinellus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES CHAETODONTIDAE

Scientific Name: Chaetodon citrinellus
Species Authority: Cuvier, 1831
Common Name(s):
English Citron Butterfly, Citron Butterflyfish, Citron coralfish, Lemon Butterflyfish, Speckled Butterflyfish, Speckled Butterflyfish
French Chétodon citron
Synonym(s):
Chaetodon citrinellus semipunctatus Ahl, 1923
Chaetodon nigripes De Vis, 1884

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Myers, R. & Pratchett, M.
Reviewer(s): Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
While there have been declines documented in some areas, these are not believed to have substantially affected the global population. This species appears to be affected only during the most extreme coral depletion events. In addition, it has a wide distribution, large population and no apparent major threats other than coral loss. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific (Pyle 2001, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006) from the East African coast in the west to the Hawaiian Islands (USA), Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Islands including the Gambier group and Rapa (French Polynesia) in the east. Populations have been recorded as far north as southern Japan and south to New South Wales, Western Australia and Lord Howe Island (all Australia) (Steene 1978, Pyle 2001, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Found at depths of 1-36 m. Range size ~71.6 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projection of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998).
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Phoenix Is.); Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., US Line Is.); Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is generally very common, especially in Papua New Guinea and on the Great Barrier Reef (e.g., mean of 1.23 individuals per 200 m2 in the northern Great Barrier Reef; Pratchett and Berumen 2008). While populations have been lost following extreme coral depletion in Japan (Shibuno et al. 1999), there was no decline reported during recent coral depletion in the central Great Barrier Reef (Pratchett et al. 2006). Overall the population is stable.

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is occurs on inner reef flats, in lagoons, and on moderately exposed outer reefs. It may be seen in areas with sparse coral growth (Steene 1978). Often occurs in pairs, but may also be seen alone or in small groups (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). This species is a facultative corallivore, feeding on hard corals, as well as algae, polychaetes, and other benthic invertebrates.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Occasionally exported through the aquarium trade (Pyle 2001).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): While Chaetodon citrinellus has been shown to decline following very extensive coral depletion in Japan, there are no records of population declines elsewhere (M. Pratchett pers. comm. 2009). There are no other major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within marine protected areas. Monitoring of this species is needed in conjunction with coral monitoring, as well as determining the degree of co-dependence between this species and corals.

Citation: Myers, R. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon citrinellus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 September 2014.
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