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Damasonium polyspermum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ALISMATALES ALISMATACEAE

Scientific Name: Damasonium polyspermum
Species Authority: Coss.
Common Name(s):
English Starfruit, Water star
French Etoile d’Eau, Damasonie Étoilée, Flûteau Étoilé
Spanish Damasoni
Synonym(s):
Damasonium alisma subspecies polyspermum (Coss.) Maire
Taxonomic Notes: Tutin et al. (1964-1980) recognise only one variable species within the genus Damasonium. However, several subspecies were described and recently elevated to the rank of species by several authors (Vuille 1987, Birkinshaw 1994, Rich and Nichols-Vuille 2001). The taxonomic treatment by Vuille (1987) and Rich and Nichols-Vuille (2001) is accepted here and D. polyspermum is considered here as a species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-12-02
Assessor(s): de Bélair, G., Daoud-Bouattour, A., Gammar-Ghrabi, Z., Limam-Ben Saad, S. & Muller, S.D.
Reviewer(s): Foggi, B., Bazos, I., García Murillo, P., Grillas, P., Lansdown, R. & Abeli, T.
Justification:
Damasonium polyspermum has an area of occupancy of less than 2,000 km² and, apart from the Spanish localities, the species' range is severely fragmented. The quality of its habitat is declining throughout the range and subpopulations as well as locations have been lost in the past. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Damasonium polyspermum is a Mediterranean endemic that is found in the Iberian Peninsula, France, Italy, Croatia, Syria, Morocco, Algeria and Libya. In Greece, all material that has been found has been identified as D. bourgaei and therefore the presence of D. polyspermum has not been confirmed. In Italy, D. polyspermum was reported only for Sicily (Conti et al. 2005).
On the Iberian Peninsula, D. polyspermum is more continental than D. bourgaei. The main populations are in central Spain - it occurs in the coastal Mediterranean strip but is less frequent there. It is present at the western coast of Portugal (Beira Litoral). In France, it is found from Biterrois to Hérault in Var, Rhône valley.
In Morocco, the species is present in Tanger, Loukkos and Ito; Bou Jerirt; vicinity of the Sidi-Ali-ou-Mohand lake, Timahdit in the Middle Atlas, Rommani in the region of the Zaers. In Algeria, it occurs in the high Plateaux of the northwest and the Oran mountains, and in Libya in El-Merj.
In the Mediterranean region, the area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 2,000 km2.
Countries:
Native:
Algeria; Croatia; France (France (mainland)); Italy (Sicilia); Libya; Morocco; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Spain (Spain (mainland)); Syrian Arab Republic
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Damasonium polyspermum is relatively rare over its entire distribution area. The populations face a decline due to the deterioration of the habitat. The species is common in the west extremity of the Mediterranean (Spain and Morocco) and becomes rare eastwards (Italy, Croatia).
- France: it was known from 10 sites distributed between the departments of Hérault, Gard, Bouches-du-Rhône and Var. Eight populations disappeared or have not been reviewed in Sauvian (plateau of Vendres), Portiragnes/Vias (Roque-Haute), Agde (pools of Riguaud), Redessan, Jonquières, Manduel (ponds of Jonquières, Campuget and Redessan), Bellegarde and the Barben (pool of the Estagnolet); only seven sites are confirmed presently;
- Italy: several localities but only one has been confirmed after 1970 at Isola Grande (Giardina et al. 2007);
- Spain: the presence of the species is noted in 20 provinces in the centre and the north of the country (between 50 and 100 sites) and  in the south of the country (approximately 20 sites);
- Portugal: only one site harbours this species;
- Morocco: there is no data on the size of the populations of this species that is considered rare;
- Algeria: very rare, signalled solely in the high plateaus of Algier and Oran (Sersou);
- Libya: only present in the El-Merj area at the Mediterranean coastline east of Benghazi.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Damasonium polyspermum is an annual plant (Therophyte), or occasionally perennial, herbaceous amphibious Helophyte occurring in muddy or gravel margins of shallow pools and lakes with seasonally fluctuating water levels. It prefers soft or weakly brackish waters, is indifferent to the nature of soil and can support slightly saline conditions. Its flowering is generally from April to June; the maturation and the dissemination of the seeds take place in summer.
The species is characteristic of one of the sub-types of Mediterranean temporary pools as indicated in the Habitats Directive.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is declining over its entire distribution area due to habitat destruction and degradation. The main threat is the change of hydrological regimes, ranging from drainage of depressions for agricultural purposes to stabilising the water levels of temporary water bodies in order to use them as reservoirs. Overgrazing, urbanization and alien-weed competition, for example Azolla filiculoides, are furthermore leading to population declines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is protected at national level in France and populations are included in the following protected areas: Parc naturel régional de Camargue, Réserve de la Tour du Valat, Lanau (Bouches-du-Rhône), pools in central Var (management plan in progress). Fuerthermore,  ex situ conservation of seeds is carried out by the Conservatoire Botanique National de Porquerolles. It is Critically Endangered in Sicily and Italy (Conti et al. 1997, Scoppola and Spampinato 2005). It is classified as Data Deficient in the Croatian Red Data Book.
In North Africa, there are no conservation measures in place.

It is necessary to confirm the identity of Damasonium populations in order to gather information about the species presence and distribution. Further proposed measures are: legal protection of the species, monitoring of existent populations and search of new localities, evaluation of population size, monitoring of population dynamics, application of legal conservation measures, to study the biology of the species and to raise public awareness.

Citation: de Bélair, G., Daoud-Bouattour, A., Gammar-Ghrabi, Z., Limam-Ben Saad, S. & Muller, S.D. 2010. Damasonium polyspermum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.
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