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Fritillaria rhodocanakis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA LILIALES LILIACEAE

Scientific Name: Fritillaria rhodocanakis
Species Authority: Orph. ex Baker
Taxonomic Notes: Fritillaria rhodokanakis hybridizes with Fritillaria spetsiotica in the south part of Argolida up to Poros island and with Fritillaria graeca at the north part of Argolida and at Korinthia. As a result, throughout its distribution on mainland Peloponnisos where it forms scattered, small population patches, F. rhodokanakis has variable populations with morphological characters intermediate between the different species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-04-11
Assessor(s): Kamari, G.
Reviewer(s): Bazos, I., Delipetrou, P. & Bilz, M.
Justification:

Fritillaria rhodokanakis is endemic to Greece and has an extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of less than 100 km². It is found at three locations and the total population size has been estimated at 500 individuals. Fritillaria rhodokanakis forms genetically pure populations only on Ydra Island and on the islets between Ydra-Argolida. It hybridizes with Fritillaria spetsiotica in the south part of Argolida up to Poros island and with Fritillaria graeca in the north part of Argolida and at Korinthia. As a result, throughout its distribution on mainland Peloponnisos where it forms scattered, small population patches, F. rhodokanakis has variable populations with morphological characteristics intermediate between the different species and hybridization is probably the main threat for the species. Therefore, a continuing decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence, number of subpopulations and mature individuals is noted. Moreover, a decline of habitat quality can be observed due to tourism and urbanisation development and grazing. Bulb collection is a further threat. This species is therefore assessed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This plant is endemic to Greece and found in the Peloponnisos. Pure populations are found on Ydra Island and the islets between Ydra-Argolida district (e.g. Dokos, Petrothalassa) and hybrid populations are found in the Argolida district (from Ermioni village to Poros island) and the Korinthia district (north to Sofiko village).

The total extent of occurrence is c. 1,400 km² and the extent of occurrence of the pure populations is less than 100 km². The area of occupancy is smaller than 100 km².


Countries:
Native:
Greece (Greece (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population has been estimated at 500 individuals (Commission of the European Communities 2009). Fritillaria rhodokanakis forms genetically pure populations only on Ydra Island and on the islets between Ydra-Argolida. On Ydra it has been found at two locations (1-2 subpopulations). On Dokos islet there is a small subpopulation of c. 20 individuals.
Fritillaria rhodokanakis hybridizes with Fritillaria spetsiotica in the south part of Argolida up to Poros island and with Fritillaria graeca in the north part of Argolida and at Korinthia. As a result, throughout its distribution on mainland Peloponnisos where it forms scattered, small population patches, F. rhodokanakis has variable populations with morphological characteristics intermediate between the different species.
Based on some of these hybrids, Zacharof (1987), mistakenly declared the existence of a new subspecies F. rhodokanakis ssp. argolica (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is found in rocky limestone areas with phrygana or low maquis and clearings of Pinus halepensis forest, at the edge of vineyards; it is usually in open vegetation but often under shrubs. It is found at altitudes of 10–500 m asl over its total distribution area and at 10–100 m asl in Ydra Island and the islets between the Ydra-Argolida district.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Bulb collection is a threat since bulbs of the pure as well as of the hybrid populations are widely cultivated and also sold on the internet.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hybridization is probably the main threat for the species, since pure populations are restricted to Ydra Island and islets.

Tourism and habitation activities constitute a threat for all the locations of the plant in Argolida and Korinthia and are even more intense on Ydra Island. The populations in Argolida and Korinthia are also threatened by grazing.

Bulb collection is a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Fritillaria rhodocanakis is listed on Annex IV of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is protected in Greece by Presidential Decree 67/81.

Citation: Kamari, G. 2011. Fritillaria rhodocanakis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.
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