Bufotes viridis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Bufotes viridis (Laurenti, 1768)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Green Toad, European Green Toad
French Crapaud vert
Spanish Sapo Verde
Bufo sitibundus (Pallas, 1771)
Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768
Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768)
Rana picta Pallas, 1831
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: Further revision of taxonomy of the Bufotes viridis complex with the use of genetic and biochemical data is needed. There was disagreement over the use of the generic name Pseudepidalea in place of Bufo and now most species have been moved to Bufotes because of non-monophyly of both Bufo and Pseudepidalea.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2008-12-16
Assessor(s): Aghasyan, A., Avci, A., Tuniyev, B., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Lymberakis, P., Andrén, C., Cogalniceanu, D., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N.B., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N.L., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Stöck, M., Khan, M.S., Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Papenfuss, T., Degani, G., Ugurtas, I.H., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Disi, A.M., Anderson, S., Beebee, T. & Andreone, F.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Following the revision of the Bufo viridis complex by Stöck et al. (2006), populations of Green Toads now allocated to Bufotes viridis are distributed through much of Europe (excluding much of Fenno-Skandia, the British Isles, almost the whole of Italy, the Iberian Peninsula and almost all of Europe west of the Rhine River) eastwards to Kazakhstan. Populations of Green Toads from the southern tip of Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany were provisionally identified as Bufotes (Bufo) variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006), however, it is possible that populations of Bufotes viridis are also within these areas. The species of Green Toad on the island of Malta is unclear, and is retained here in Bufotes viridis pending further research. Populations of Green Toad from the Eastern Mediterranean countries, and much of Central and Middle Asia are now largely allocated to Bufotes (Bufo) variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006). Populations from North Africa are now included within Bufotes boulengeri. Populations of Green Toads from the Balearic Islands (Spain), Corsica (France), Sardinia (Italy) and much of mainland Italy are now recognized as Pseudepidalea balearica. Green toad populations from Sicily, Italy, now mostly comprise the endemic Bufotes siculus, with some populations of Bufotes balearicus in the northeast of this island. The status of Green Toads in Israel, Jordan, Sinai (Egypt) and of the isolated, relict population in the southern Hadramaut in southwestern Saudi Arabia is currently unclear, and it is possible that these populations should be included within either Bufotes variabilis or Bufotes boulengeri pending further review.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:
Spain (Baleares)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is still considered a relatively abundant to common species over large parts of its range, although populations formally recognized as Bufotes viridis are rare or declining on the fringes of its range in Europe (e.g., Denmark and Sweden). It is extinct in Switzerland despite re-introduction efforts.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species lives in a wide range of forests, forest steppe, scrubland, grassland and alpine habitats. Animals may be present in modified areas including urban centres (e.g. Bucharest), city parks and gardens - and often benefits from disturbed habitats. Spawning and larval development occurs in a diverse range of temporary and permanent waterbodies including swamps, ponds, lakes, pools in streams and rivers, reservoirs, ditches and puddles.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat over much of the range (most especially in the north) appears to be the loss of breeding habitats through wetland drainage, desiccation and aquatic pollution (industrial and agricultural). Populations might be locally declining due to mortality on roads.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and is listed on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries; it is recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists and is present in many protected areas. In parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: Reformatted names of assessor(s), reviewer(s), contributor(s), facilitator(s) and/or compiler(s).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

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Citation: Aghasyan, A., Avci, A., Tuniyev, B., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Lymberakis, P., Andrén, C., Cogalniceanu, D., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N.B., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N.L., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Stöck, M., Khan, M.S., Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Papenfuss, T., Degani, G., Ugurtas, I.H., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Disi, A.M., Anderson, S., Beebee, T. & Andreone, F. 2015. Bufotes viridis. In: (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T155333A86444583. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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