Pseudepidalea viridis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Pseudepidalea viridis
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English Green Toad
French Crapaud Vert
Spanish Sapo Verde
Synonym(s):
Bufo shaartusiensis Pisanetz, Mezhzherin and Szczerbak, 1996
Bufo sitibundus (Pallas, 1771)
Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768
Rana picta Pallas, [1814]
Taxonomic Notes: Further revision of taxonomy of the Pseudepidalea viridis complex with the use of genetic and biochemical data is needed. There is continuing disagreement over the use of the generic name Pseudepidalea over the use of Bufo.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya, Matthias Stöck, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Theodore Papenfuss, Gad Degani, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Following the recent revision of the Bufo viridis complex by Stöck et al. (2006), populations of green toads now allocated to Pseudepidalea viridis are distributed through much of Europe (excluding much of Fenno-Skandia, the British Isles, almost the whole of Italy, the Iberian Peninsula and almost all of Europe west of the Rhine River) eastwards to Kazakhstan. Populations of green toads from the southern tip of Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany were provisionally identified as Pseudepidalea variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006), however it is possible that populations of Pseudepidalea viridis are also within these areas. The species of green toad on the island of Malta is unclear, and is retained here in Pseudepidalea viridis pending further research. Populations of green toad from the Eastern Mediterranean countries, and much of Central and Middle Asia are now largely allocated to Pseudepidalea variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006). Populations from North Africa are now included within Pseudepidalea boulengeri. Populations of green toads from the Balearic Islands (Spain), Corsica (France), Sardinia (Italy) and much of mainland Italy are now recognized as Pseudepidalea balearica. Green toad populations from Sicily, Italy, now mostly comprise the endemic Pseudepidalea sicula, with some populations of Pseudepidalea balearica in the northeast of this island. The status of green toads in Israel, Jordan, Sinai (Egypt) and of the isolated, relict population in the southern Hadramaut in southwestern Saudi Arabia is currently unclear, and it is possible that these populations should be included within either Pseudepidalea variabilis or Pseudepidalea boulengeri pending further review.
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:
Switzerland
Introduced:
Spain (Baleares)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is still considered a relatively abundant to common species over large parts of its range, although populations formerly recognized as Pseudepidalea viridis are rare or declining on the fringes of its range in Europe (e.g., Denmark and Sweden). It is extinct in Switzerland despite re-introduction efforts.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species lives in a wide range of forests, forest steppe, scrubland, grassland and alpine habitats. Animals may be present in modified areas including urban centres (e.g. Bucharest), city parks and gardens - and often benefits from disturbed habitats. Spawning and larval development occurs in a diverse range of temporary and permanent waterbodies including swamps, ponds, lakes, pools in streams and rivers, reservoirs, ditches and puddles.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat over much of the range (most especially in the north) appears to be the loss of breeding habitats through wetland drainage, desiccation and aquatic pollution (industrial and agricultural). Populations might be locally declining due to mortality on roads.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and is listed on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries; it is recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists and is present in many protected areas. In parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

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Citation: Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya, Matthias Stöck, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Theodore Papenfuss, Gad Degani, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone 2009. Pseudepidalea viridis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 October 2014.
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