|Habitat and Ecology:
||This species is represented by many maternity occurrences and hibernacula, but the majority of the population hibernates at relatively few sites, including several caves and one mine in Missouri, southern Indiana, and Kentucky (Brady et al. 1983, USFWS 1999). About 85% of the total population hibernates in nine Priority 1 caves, which contain at least 30,000 bats; the remaining 15 percent of the population have been or currently are distributed among 50+ Priority II and III hibernacula (Menzel et al. 2001). About ninety wintering sites are known.
Maternity colonies consist of small, widely scattered colonies of females (rarely more than 100) and their young. These are more widely distributed and numerous than are major hibernacula. For example, individuals from one hibernaculum in New York used many roost trees (Britzke et al. 2006). Captures of reproductively active females or juveniles at 24 sites in 16 counties in Illinois indicate that maternity colonies of this species occur throughout the range of this species in that state (Gardner et al. 1996). Maternity sites have been found in 13 counties in Kentucky (Kentucky Bat Working Group; http://www.biology.eku.edu/bats/indianabat.htm).
Myotis sodalis hibernates in caves; maternity sites generally are behind loose bark of dead or dying trees or in tree cavities (Menzel et al. 2001). Foraging habitats riparian areas, upland forests, ponds, and fields (Menzel et al. 2001), but forested landscapes are the most important habitat in agricultural landscapes (Menzel et al. 2005).
In hibernation, limestone caves with pools are preferred. Hall (1962) noted that preferred caves are of medium size with large, shallow passageways. Roosts usually are in the coldest part of the cave. Preferred sites have a mean midwinter air temperature of 4-8 C (tolerates much broader range) (Hall 1962, Henshaw and Folk 1966), well below that of caves that are not chosen (Clawson et al. 1980). Roost sites within caves may shift such that bats remain in the coldest area (Clawson et al. 1980); individuals may move from a location deeper in the cave to a site nearer the entrance as the cold season progresses; they may move away from areas that go below freezing. Hibernation in the coldest parts of the cave ensures a sufficiently low metabolic rate so that the fat reserves last through the six-month hibernation period (Henshaw and Folk 1966, Humphrey 1978). Relative humidity in occupied caves ranges from 66 to 95% and averages 87% throughout the year (Barbour and Davis 1969, Clawson et al. 1980). Because of these requirements, M. sodalis is highly selective of hibernacula.
During the fall, when these bats swarm and mate at their hibernacula, males roost in trees nearby during the day and fly to the cave during the night. In Kentucky, Kiser and Elliott (1996) found males roosting primarily in dead trees on upper slopes and ridgetops within 2.4 km of their hibernaculum. During September in West Virginia, males roosted within 5.6 km in trees near ridgetops, and often switched roost trees from day to day (C. Stihler, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999). Fall roost trees tend to be in sunnier areas rather than being shaded (J. MacGregor, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999). In summer, habitat consists of wooded or semiwooded areas, often but not always along streams. Solitary females or small maternity colonies bear their offspring in hollow trees or under loose bark of living or dead trees (Humphrey et al. 1977, Garner and Gardner 1992). Humphrey et al. (1977) determined that dead trees are preferred roost sites and that trees standing in sunny openings are attractive because the air spaces and crevices under the bark are warmer. In Illinois, Garner and Gardner (1992) found that typical roosts were beneath the exfoliating bark of dead trees; other roost sites were beneath the bark of living trees and in cavities of dead trees. Kurta et al. (1993) found a large maternity colony in a dead, hollow, barkless, unshaded sycamore tree in a pasture in Illinois. In Michigan, a reproductively active colony occupied eight different roost trees (all green ash), all of which were exposed to direct sunlight throughout the day; bats roosted beneath loose bark of dead trees (Kurta et al. 1993). In western Virginia, a male used a mature, live, shagbark hickry tree as a diurnal roost; the bat foraged primarily among tree canopies of an 80-year-old oak-hickory forest (Hobson and Holland 1995). In Missouri, primary maternity roosts were in standing dead trees exposed to direct sunlight; there were 1-3 primary roosts per colony; alternate roosts were in living and dead trees that typically were within the shaded forest interior (Callahan et al. 1997). See Garner and Garner (1992) for detailed information on summer habitat in Illinois. Though maternity sites have been reported as occurring mainly in riparian and floodplain forests (Humphrey et al. 1977, Garner and Gardner 1992), recent studies indicate that upland habitats are used by maternity colonies much more extensively than previously reported. Garner and Gardner (1992) reported that 38 of 51 roost trees in Illinois occurred in uplands and 13 trees were in floodplains. Of the 47 trees in forested habitat, 27 were in areas having a closed (80-100%) canopy, and 15 were in areas having an intermediate (30-80%) canopy. A single roost tree was found in the following types of habitat: a heavily grazed ridgetop pasture with a few scattered dead trees, a partially wooded swine feedlot, a palustrine wetland with emergent vegetation, a forested island in the Mississippi river, and a clearcut around a segment of an intermittent stream where dead trees were retained for wildlife. Roosts were not found in forests with open canopies (10-30%) or in old fields with less than or equal to 10% canopy cover. In eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, several maternity colonies were in sun-exposed conifer snags (roost sites were above the surrounding canopy); some of these snags fell and were not used in subsequent years (Britzke et al. 2003). Rarely maternity colonies have been found in crevices in utility poles or in bat boxes (e.g., Ritzi et al. 2005). See Menzel et al. (2001) for a review of forest habitat relationships. Known roost tree species include elm, oak, beech, hickory, maple, ash, sassafras, birch, sycamore, locust, aspen, cottonwood, pine, and hemlock (Cope et al. 1974, Humphrey et al. 1977, Garner and Gardner 1992, Britzke et al. 2003, Britzke et al. 2006), especially trees with exfoliating bark.
In Illinois, Indiana bats used the same, evidently traditional, roost sites in successive summers. Recapture of the same individuals within traditional roost sites during subsequent summers suggests site fidelity (Garner and Gardner 1992, Gardner et al. 1996). Relatively few individuals roost in caves at the mouths of which late summer swarming occurs (Cope and Humphrey 1977, Barbour and Davis 1969).