Mycteroperca rosacea

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES EPINEPHELIDAE

Scientific Name: Mycteroperca rosacea
Species Authority: (Streets, 1877)
Common Name/s:
English Golden Grouper, Leopard Grouper
French Merou Leopard
Spanish Cabrilla Calamaria, Cabrilla Pintita, Cabrilla Rosa, Cabrilla Sardinera
Synonym/s:
Epinephelus rosacea Streets, 1877

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ad+4ad ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor/s: Craig, M.T. & Sadovy, Y.
Reviewer/s: Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Justification:
Mycteroperca rosacea is listed as Vulnerable because of its rather narrow range of occurrence and because of observational data that indicate a reduction in population abundance over the past 10 years of approximately 50% of the standing biomass. This reduction is due to intense subsistence, artisinal, and recreational fishing throughout the range of the species. Because the species is one of the most important fishes to the Gulf of California fisheries, there is no indication that this activity (cause for reduction) will cease and, thus the species warrants continued monitoring and further conservation action. As the species is long-lived and also aggregates to spawn, it is particularly vulnerable to overexploitation.
History:
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Mycteroperca rosacea is distributed in the eastern central Pacific, ranging from the southwest coast of Baja California throughout the Gulf of California to Jalisco (Mexico).
Countries:
Native:
Mexico
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Mycteroperca rosacea is common throughout the Gulf of California. Mycteroperca rosacea is one of the most important fishes to the Gulf of California fisheries. Observational data indicate a reduction in population abundance over the past 10 years of approximately 50% of the standing biomass from intense subsistence, artisinal, and recreational fishing throughout the range of the species. There is no indication that this activity (cause for reduction) has ceased. Data have been provided by M. Buckhorn, J. Rupnow, and J. Torre.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Mycteroperca rosacea is a reef-associated species that prefers rocky areas in shallow water at depths of about 50 m. The species is also found on seamounts (Buckhorn, M.L., pers. Comm.).

Feeding
Adults feed on schools of the flatiron herring, Harengula thrissina, and anchoveta, Cetengraulis mysticetus when available; if not, on other schooling or non-schooling fishes. Most individuals feed at dawn and dusk, with a peak in activity about 20 minutes after sunset. Juveniles feed throughout the day on a variety of benthic fishes and crustaceans.

Reproduction
In Loreto, Mexico: Punta Lobos, on the northeast tip (specifically the north facing side of the point) is the “main” aggregation site (see Figure 1). This is considered the “main” site because the size classes and abundances are much higher than the other sites surveyed. Large (60 to 90 cm) leopard grouper on the south facing side have been recorded during the day but not in the afternoons. Surveys of Punta Lobos were conducted 2001, 2004, 2005, 2006. Spawning was observed directly in 2004 to 2006. El Bajo Tijeras is a large, flat sandy seamount to the south of Isla Carmen with a several shallow (45 to 60 ft. depth) rocky pinnacles. Surveys of these pinnacles, in 2001, recorded large leopard groupers in high abundances during the day at one pinnacle in particular. No dives were conducted in the afternoon so it was only presumed that spawning took place at that spot that year. Monitoring in subsequent years failed to record the same size classes and abundances there (COBI surveys) and at other nearby pinnacles. At Punta Coyote, just outside of Puerto Escondido, spawning has been observed directly in 2005 and 2006. Surveys conducted in 2006 recorded another large group (30 to 40 animals) of mature grouper (70 to 90 cm) at Danzante North Punta. Surveys were only conducted in the morning at this site but these grouper exhibited the same pre-courtship behaviour observed during morning surveys at Punta Lobos, so it is only presumed to be a spawning site at this time. (from M. Buckhorn, pers. Comm., University of California, Davis, 1 March 2007).

Follow the link below for Figure 1: Known spawning aggregation sites of Mycteroperca rosacea in the Gulf of California (courtesy of ML Buckhorn, University of California, Davis).

This species was previously listed as a protogynous hermaphrodite, however, upon further study this species is now known to be gonochoric (Erisman and Hastings, In press).

In Loreto, Mexico, Mycteroperca rosacea spawns from April through June. The species is an aggregate, broadcast spawner.

Biology
Maximum age thus far recorded is 17 years in a 69 cm male (see Figure 2 and Table 1).

Follow the link below for:

Figure 2: Age-length (total length, x-axis) relationship for Mycteroperca rosacea taken from the Gulf of California (courtesy of ML Buckhorn, unpublished data, University of California, Davis).

Table 1: Life history table of Mycteroperca rosacea from specimens collected in the Gulf of California (courtesy of ML Buckhorn, unpublished data, University of California, Davis).
For further information about this species, see 14053_Mycteroperca_rosacea.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to Mycteroperca rosacea are subsistence, artisinal, and recreational fishing.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are two small no-take zones in the Loreto Marine Park - Bajo del Murcielago and Bajo del Cochi (see Figure 3).

Follow the link below for Figure 3: Known marine protected areas within the Gulf of California (courtesy of ML Buckhorn, unpublished data, University of California, Davis).
For further information about this species, see 14053_Mycteroperca_rosacea.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.

Bibliography [top]

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.

Erisman, B.E., Buckhorn, M.L. and Hastings, P.A. 2007. Spawning patterns in the leopard grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, in comparison with other aggregating groupers..

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Smith, W.L. and Craig, M.T. 2007. Casting the percomorph net widely: The importance of broad taxonomic sampling in the search for the placement of serranid and percid fishes. Copeia 2007(1): 35-55.

Citation: Craig, M.T. & Sadovy, Y. 2008. Mycteroperca rosacea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided