|Scientific Name:||Cacajao hosomi|
|Species Authority:||Boubli, da Silva, Amado, Herbk, Pontual & Farias, 2008|
Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1811) subspecies melanocephalus
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of this newly described species follows Boubli et al. (2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2d ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Boubli, J.-P. & Veiga, L.M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 30 years (three generations) mainly due to hunting.
|Range Description:||The range of this species is delimited to the south and west by the Rio Negro (Brazil, Venezuela), by the Rio Marauiá in the east (Brazil), and the Canal Cassiquiare and Rio Orinoco to the north (Venezuela). The absence of C. hosomi north of the Canal Cassiquiari is speculative at present.|
Native:Brazil; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no precise data concerning total numbers. Boubli (1997) estimated a crude density of 7 animals/km² at his study site in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. However, this is probably an overestimate given that these animals are seasonal vagrants (i.e., they move to different areas in times of food scarcity). Thus, overall densities are probably lower than one individual/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Black-headed Uakaris are found in a variety of habitat types, including terra firme, chavascal, flooded forests (igapós), campinarana or "Rio Negro caatinga" (white sand forests), and montane forest. They are seasonal vagrants and move to different areas of the forest tracking the seasonal variation in availability of preferred fruits. They forage at different levels from the understory to the canopy, but they have never been seen descending to the ground. All uakaris are specialized seed predators and the majority of their diet is made up of immature seeds. The diet can be supplemented by fruit pulp, leaves and arthropods. Group sizes range from 35 to >100 individuals; fission-fusion was never witnessed in this species.|
This species has a limited distribution and is heavily hunted for its meat, particularly by the Yanomami Amerindians from the Maturacá, Nazareth, Xamatá, Pohoró villages, but also by caboclos along the road from São Gabriel da Cachoeira to Cucuí, Amazons, Brazil. Although the consumption of primates and other game by the Yanomamis might have been sustainable in the past, the advent of permanent (missionary encouraged) settlements, and subsequent population increase and use of shotguns are now drastically affecting primate numbers near indigenous villages. Once abundant along the Canal Maturacá (a natural channel that connects the Cauaburi River in Brazil with Canal Cassiquiari in Venezuela), Black-headed Uacaris are now a rare sight in this area. Lehman and Robertson (1994) reported that Black-headed Uakaris were hunted heavily by both illegal Brazilian goldminers and local people and may have been eliminated from much of their range in southern Venezuela. They claim that surviving populations may be restricted to forests in the Rio Baria and the Rio Manipitari interfluvium.
The threat of goldmining present during the 1980s and 1990s is no longer present in the region.
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on CITES Appendix I. Presently, the Pico da Neblina transboundary conservation area protects the species. The Neblina transboundary preservation area consists of one of the largest protected areas in South America with a total of 3,560,000 ha (2,200,000 ha in Brazil and 1,360,000 ha in Venezuela). The Brazilian Pico da Neblina National Park and the Venezuelan Serranía de la Neblina National Park were created (in 1979 and 1978, respectively) in order to protect the Pico da Neblina massif, its endemic flora and fauna, as well as a large area of the surrounding lowlands (Huber 1995). The Black-headed Uakari is possibly the only medium-sized mammal restricted to the Neblina transboundary area and could be used as a flagship species for the conservation of the area.|
|Citation:||Boubli, J.-P. & Veiga, L.M. 2008. Cacajao hosomi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.|
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