|Scientific Name:||Manis culionensis|
|Species Authority:||(de Elera, 1915)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Manis culionensis was recognized as a distinct species from Manis javanica by Feiler (1998), a determination that was supported by a study of discrete morphological characters by Gaubert and Antunes (2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2d+3d+4d ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lagrada, L., Schoppe, S. & Challender, D.|
|Contributor(s):||Martelli, P., Martelli, K., Khan, S. & Oi Ching, O.|
This species is listed as Endangered A2d+3d+4d due to suspected populations declines of >50% over a period of 21 years (three generations, generation length estimated at seven years), based on potential levels of exploitation for trade, including national and international trade, and which is exacerbated by subsistence hunting and habitat loss and alteration. However, further research is required into the population status of this species and its threats.
This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is found in the Palawan faunal region. It is known from mainland Palawan and adjacent islands; Busuanga Island (including the municipalities of Calauit and Coron), Coron Island, Culion Island (Heaney et al. 1998), and Dumaran Island (Widmann et al. 2004). It has also been introduced to Apulit Island (Schlitter 2005) while recent interview surveys by Schoppe in 2013 (unpublished) suggest it also occurs on Balabac Island (S. Schoppe pers. comms. 2013). It is considered to be more abundant in the northern and central parts of Palawan Island and much rarer in the south (Schoppe and Cruz 2009). This species was described as uncommon by Heaney et al. (1998) and though local informants considered it fairly common, as reported by Esselstyn in 2004, it is subject to heavy hunting. It is found in primary and secondary lowland forest (Allen 1910, Hoogstraal 1951, Sanborn 1952, Taylor 1934, Heaney et al. 1998), lowland grassland/forest mosaic (Esselstyn et al. 2004), including near human habitation, providing there is suitable vegetative cover i.e. abundant trees and logs (Schoppe and Cruz 2009).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is very little information available on populations of any species of Asian Pangolin. This species is infrequently observed due, partly to its increasing rarity, but also because of its elusive, solitary and nocturnal habits, and there is a lack of research on population densities or abundance (WCMC et al. 1999, CITES 2000, Hoogstraal 1951, Esselstyn et al. 2004). It is suspected it is more common in northern and central Palawan and relatively rare in the south (Schoppe and Cruz 2009). According to local hunters, populations are declining as a result of hunting both for subsistence use, and increasingly international trade, and which is exacerbated by habitat loss (S. Schoppe pers comms. 2012, Lagrada 2012).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in lowland primary and secondary forests, grassland/secondary growth mosaics, mixed mosaics of agricultural lands and scrubland adjacent to secondary forests (Esselstyn et al. 2004, Heaney et al. 1998). The upper elevational limit recorded by Lagrada (2012) is 2,015 m asl. As with other pangolins, this species feeds on termites and ants. An affinity of the Philippine Pangolin to fig trees (Ficus spp.) has been reported, probably because these trees provide tree hollows and attract ants, primary prey species (Schoppe and Cruz 2009).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is hunted at a local, subsistence level for consumption of its meat, but also for trade at a national level (blood, meat, skins and scales) and internationally (whole animal, meat, scales and skin) (Cruz et al. 2007, Esselstyn et al. 2004, Schoppe and Cruz 2009). It is traded for food and traditional medicine on Palawan and from Palawan to Manila. For example, ethnic Taiwanese people drink its blood in wine and believe the meat has medicinal values (Schoppe and Cruz 2009). While Manis culionensis has been reported in international trade historically, since the last assessment in 2008, there is evidence of a tangible illicit international trade involving this species, both directly to China for use in traditional medicines, and to Sabah (Kudat, Sandakan), East Malaysia and Peninsular Malaysia (Schoppe and Cruz 2009, Pantel and Anak 2010).|
This species is threatened by local hunting for its meat, scales and skin, the latter being used to treat asthma (Esselstyn et al. 2004), and international trade, which involves meat, scales, skins and whole animals (Schoppe and Cruz 2009, Challender et al. in prep). Deforestation and loss of suitable habitat also pose an additional threat. There is evidence that this species can be found for sale in Puerto Princesa, and reports that it is hunted on Palawan, for example, in logged lowland forest in Taytay (Esselstyn et al. 2004). Esselstyn et al. (2004) report it was described by locals as fairly common in c. 2004, though subject to moderately heavy hunting pressure, while Heaney et al. (1998) reported in the late 1990s that it was subject to heavy hunting pressure. It is reported as rare in Southern Palawan, namely Rizal, Quezon and Bataraza (Schoppe and Cruz 2009), Brookes Point (Lagrada 2012), and Balabac (Schoppe unpubl. data).
The scales are also presumably in trade for Traditional Chinese Medicine, as part of the shift to market economies among the Tagbanua and other ethnic groups on Palawan (Lacerna and Widmann 1999, Esselstyn et al. 2004). Evidence from the last seven years also demonstrates there is a tangible illicit international trade involving Manis culionensis, the full extent of which is unknown (Cruz et al. 2007, Schoppe and Cruz 2009, Pantel and Anak 2010, Challender et al. in prep). However, catch per unit effort has decreased based on hunters from Brookes Point (Lagrada 2012), but an increase in the number of confiscations and number of confiscated animals from 1999 to 2012 indicate either an increase in demand and/or trade or improved law enforcement (KFI, 2013). Between 1999 and 2009 only 47 animals were seized according to KFI (2013), but between 2010 and 2012, confiscations involved 369 animals. Currently scales are sold at USD250 (PHP10,000) per kilogram and meat at USD15/kg (PHP600.00). An increase in price and a shift from meat/live to scales was noticeable from 2006-2013 (Schoppe unpubl. data).
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed in CITES Appendix II and zero export quotas for wild-caught animals traded for primarily commercial purposes were established in 2000 (CoP11). It is classified as 'Endangered' under the Philippine Wildlife Act 9147 (2001), which bans the collection of any form of wildlife in the Province of Palawan without a permit. The entirety of this province was declared a game refuge and bird sanctuary in 1969 (Proclamations 219 and 530-B). However, further research is needed into populations of this species and the magnitude and types of threats it faces.|
|Citation:||Lagrada, L., Schoppe, S. & Challender, D. 2014. Manis culionensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2015.|
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