Manis culionensis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Manis culionensis
Species Authority: (de Elera, 1915)
Common Name(s):
English Philippine Pangolin
Taxonomic Notes: Manis culionensis was recognized as a distinct species from Manis javanica by Feiler (1998), a determination that was supported by a study of discrete morphological characters by Gaubert and Antunes (2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Batin, G. & Widmann, P.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N. & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
The species is assessed as Near Threatened as it is close to meeting criteria A3cd for Vulnerable due to a projected population decline approaching 30% over ten years based on habitat destruction and hunting. Further research is required on the population status of this species and also on the current major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is found in the Palawan faunal region. The species is known from mainland Palawan and adjacent islands (Busuanga, Culion and Calauit), and has also been introduced to Apulit Island (Heaney et al. 1998; Schlitter 2005).
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is very little information available on the population of any species of Asian pangolins. This species is rarely observed due to its secretive, solitary, and nocturnal habits, and there is not enough research on population densities or global population (WCMC et al. 1999; CITES 2000). The species is suspected to be moderately common across its range, with sometimes localized distribution, although it is not often sighted (Hoogstraal, 1951; Esselstyn et al. 2004). According to local hunters, the species population is in decline (Batin pers. comm. 2006).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in lowland primary and secondary forests, grassland/secondary growth mosaics, mixed mosaics of agricultural lands, and scrubland adjacent to secondary forests (Esselstyn et al. 2004). The upper elevational limit is not known. As with other pangolins, this species feeds on termites and ants.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Although not so far included in international trade, this is to be expected in the future, as other species of Asian pangolins decline.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is affected by deforestation and it is also hunted for its skin/scales, which are used to treat asthma, and for its meat (Esselstyn et al. 2004). There are reports that the species has been seen for sale in Puerto Princesa, as well as reports that the it is hunted in places on Palawan such as Taytay, in logged lowland forest (Esselstyn et al. 2004). The species is described by locals as fairly common, but under moderate hunting pressure (Esselstyn et al. 2004). The scales are also presumably in the Chinese medicine trade, as part of the shift to market economies among Tagbanua and other ethnic groups on Palawan (Lacerna and Widmann 1999; Esselstyn et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed (under Manis javanicus) on CITES Appendix II. This species is protected under a ban on the collection of any form of wildlife in the Province of Palawan, the entire province having been declared a game refuge and bird sanctuary in 1969 (Proclamations 219 and 530-B) (CITES 2000). There is further research needed into population size and trends, as well as the magnitude and types of threats to this species. There is currently no evidence of international trade in this species, but in the future this should be tightly monitored given the declines of other Asian pangolins.

Citation: Batin, G. & Widmann, P. 2008. Manis culionensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.
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