|Scientific Name:||Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Contributor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Range is Holarctic and includes the Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Alaska to Labrador, south to Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Nebraska (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been introduced in many areas southward of the native range.|
Native:Albania; Austria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Monaco; Mongolia; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan
Introduced:Algeria; Ethiopia; Ireland; Morocco; Portugal; Spain; Tunisia; Uganda
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).|
Total adult population size is unknown but very large.
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This fish usually occurs in clear small lakes, shallow vegetated areas of larger lakes, marshes, creeks, and small to large rivers. It moves to deeper cooler water in summer. Spawning occurs in shallow flooded marshes associated with lakes, inlet streams to those lakes (or flooded terrestrial vegetation at reservoir edge), or rivers; spawning habitat is basically a flooded area with emergent vegetation (optimally over short grasses or sedges). Young remain in spawning habitat for several weeks after hatching.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is of importance in commercial fisheries, aquaculture, public aquaria, and as a gamefish.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Esox lucius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T135631A15363638.Downloaded on 12 December 2017.|