Schizothorax grahami 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Schizothorax grahami
Species Authority: (Regan, 1904)
Common Name(s):
English Kunming Snout Trout
Synonym(s):
Oreinus grahami Regan, 1904
Racoma grahami Wu & Wu, 1992
Taxonomic Notes: Originally Oreinus grahami by Regan (1904), but changed in 1964 to Schizothorax grahami by Cao and in 1992 to Racoma grahami by Wu and Wu (1992). Valid as Schizothorax grahami (Regan, 1904).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.
Reviewer(s): Kullander, F. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority) & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Unit)
Justification:
Schizothorax grahami is endemic to Lake Dianchi, its tributaries and connected springs, Yunnan Province, China. The species has not been caught in the lake in the past 20 years. This decline in the species is mainly due to introduced fish species, pollution, over fishing and the loss of habitat. Currently it is only known to be found in two tributaries and two springs of the Songhuaba reservoir drainage, which comprise only one location (based on the major threat of introduced species) and one population. Its extent of occurrence is about 20 km² and area of occupancy is less than 10 km². The species may be found in more locations and more surveys are required to confirm this; but based on the current information available the species is assessed as Critically Endangered based on its restricted range and continuing declines in range, habitat quality and population size.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to Lake Dianchi its tributaries and springs. However, currently now only known from Muyang River, Lengshui River, Black dragon spring and Green dragon spring. These four sites all belong to Songhuaba Reservior drainage.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Yunnan)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0-10Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:20
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):1874
Upper elevation limit (metres):2220Lower depth limit (metres):10
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Known from about two temple spring ponds, and two lake tributaries (Muyang/Lengshui), but they make just one population. Population size is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Prefers riffle habitats and cold water. It hides under big stones or caves under water in winter. In summer, it feeds in fast flowing water over sand and cobbles. It feeds and grows in lakes or rivers, but during the breeding season it will migrate to the rivers or any other kind of stream inlet to Lake Dianchi where it spawns in riffles (Chen and Cao 2000).
Systems:Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its loss from the lake likely due to introduced fish species, water pollution, over-fishing, and breeding sites lost due to siltation and blocked access.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No location in a formal protected area, but two of the springs ‘protected’ by Buddhist temples.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.18. Wetlands (inland) - Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems (inland)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability:Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Unknown  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Past, Likely to Return ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:No/Negligible Impact: 0 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Chen, Y. and Cao, W. 2000. Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae. In: Yue (ed.), Fauna Sinica. Osteichthyes. Cypriniformes, pp. 273-390. Science Press, Beijing.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Regan, C.T. 1904. On a collection of fishes made by Mr. John Graham at Yunnan Fu. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13(75): 190-194.

Tsao, W.-H. 1964. Schizothoracinae. In: Wu (ed.), The cyprinid fishes of China, pp. 137-197. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai.

Wu, Y. and Wu, C. 1992. The Fishes of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Sichuan Publishing House of Science.


Citation: Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J. 2008. Schizothorax grahami. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T135149A4067169. . Downloaded on 30 September 2016.
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