Rafflesia magnifica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Rafflesiales Rafflesiaceae

Scientific Name: Rafflesia magnifica
Species Authority: Madulid, Tandang & Agoo
Taxonomic Notes: R. magnifica was discovered in 2005.  The species is easily distinguished by the four distinct zones of processes on the disc.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Madulid, D.A., Tandang, D.N. & Agoo, E.M.G.
Reviewer(s): Madulid, D.A. & Agoo, E.M.G. (IUCN SSC Philippine Plant Red List Authority)
The species is found in only one unprotected locality: Mt. Candalaga Range in Maragusan, Compostela Valley, where the individuals are distributed in small groups. A road infrastructure project is planned on part of the mountain. Moreover, the lower mountain slopes are being converted into banana plantations.

Given the small range, continuing decline in extent and quality of habitat, and the very small size of the population this species is listed as Critically Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Known only from Mindanao Island (Philippines), where it was recorded at Mt. Candalaga Range, Maragusan, Compostela Valley.

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is confined to the mountain range of Mt. Candalaga. Only a few individuals were found with 3-5 individuals per cluster. So far, only male individuals have been recorded.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
All individuals in one subpopulation:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:R. magnifica occurs in lowland evergreen rainforests at 600–800 m asl.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The construction of a national highway in the area has facilitated easier human access and disturbance poses a threat to the species (these unusual flowers are often treated as visitor attractions). Furthermore, parts of the forest are being converted into banana plantations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No actions are in place.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Madulid, D.A., Tandang, D.N. and Agoo, E.M.G. 2005. Rafflesia magnifica (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines. Acta Manilana 50: 1-6.

Citation: Madulid, D.A., Tandang, D.N. & Agoo, E.M.G. 2008. Rafflesia magnifica. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133709A3873727. . Downloaded on 29 April 2017.
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