Cephalopholis panamensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Epinephelidae

Scientific Name: Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner, 1877)
Common Name(s):
English Pacific Graysby, Panama Graysby
French Cone Bane
Spanish Bacalao, Cabrilla Enjambre, Enjambre
Epinephelus panamesis (Steindachner, 1877)
Petrometopon panamensis (Steindachner, 1877)
Serranus panamensis Steindachner, 1877
Taxonomic Notes: A recent publication suggests changing the family name to Epinephelidae (Smith and Craig 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Cephalopholis panamensis is listed as Least Concern because of a stable population and is not targeted by fisheries. It does not appear to be in decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cephalopholis panamensis is an eastern Pacific species that is narrowly distributed from the Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):30
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is currently limited information on populations of Cephalopholis panamensis over its range.

The population of C. panamensis in Loreto (Baja California) appears stable from informal surveys 2000-2007 (B. Erisman, MTC pers. obs.).

REEF surveys indicate ~55 to 60% site frequency from 2000 to 2006 (

Anecdotal surveys by B. Erisman and M. Buckhorn indicate its population has been, and continues to be stable (six years of survey). REEF surveys also indicate that the population has remained stable since 2000. While the species is incidentally caught and may be taken by subsistence fisherman, there is no direct threat to this species by intentional harvest.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:General
Cephalopholis panamensis is a common, shy and secretive reef-associated, non-migratory species that is found on coral reefs and rocky shore habitats. Maximum depth to at least 30 m. Maximum size recently increased to 387 mm TL (M. Craig SIOMVC). There is one doubtful record to 76 m. It prefers shallower, warmer water than many of its congeners.

B. Erisman recent confirmed protogyny for the species. Spawning peaks in July/August in Loreto, Mexico (B. Erisman, SIO, pers. comm.).

Maximum age is approximately 25 years (Craig et al. 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threat levels for Cephalopholis panamensis are low. It is primarily targeted by subsistence and recreational fisheries and occurs as incidental catch in the commercial fishery.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures for Cephalopholis panamensis, although it occurs in various marine parks throughout Baja California (Loreto, Cabo Pulmo) and the Galapagos Islands.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: This amended version of the 2008 assessment was created as Guadeloupe was accidentally recorded as a country of occurrence.

Citation: Craig, M.T. 2017. Cephalopholis panamensis (amended version of 2008 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T132733A118679131. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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