Menidia conchorum 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Atheriniformes Atherinopsidae

Scientific Name: Menidia conchorum
Species Authority: Hildebrand & Ginsburg, 1927
Common Name(s):
English Key Silverside
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke, R. (eds). 2015. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 1 October 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 1 October 2015).
Taxonomic Notes: There is currently a publication in review on the species delineation of Menidia conchorum and Menidia peninsulae (S. O'Leary pers. comm. 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-01-07
Assessor(s): Collette, B., Grubbs, D., Pezold, F., Simons, J., Caruso, J., Carlson, J., McEachran, J.D., Brenner, J., Tornabene, L., Chakrabarty, P., Robertson, R., Chao, L., Vega-Cendejas, M., Tolan, J., Carpenter, K.E., Munroe, T., Jelks, H. & Espinosa-Perez, H.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Buchanan, J. & Harwell, H.
Justification:

This species is endemic to the Gulf of Mexico where it is restricted to patchily distributed tidal lagoons in the Florida Keys between Key Largo and Key West. It may be locally abundant at times. Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 3,802 km² and its estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 2,611 km², but since it is patchily distributed across this area, its AOO is likely less than 500 km². These estimates meet the thresholds for Endangered under criteria B1 and B2. Its entire range is found within the Florida Keys National Sanctuary, however, coastal development continues to degrade or destroy its habitat. Therefore, it is assessed as Endangered (EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)).

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is only known from the Gulf of Mexico in the Florida Keys from Key West to Key Largo (Chernoff 2002). Its distribution is patchy and shifts locations in brackish ponds from year to year (Getter 1981).

Its estimated EOO is 3,802 km² (based on a minimum convex polygon drawn around the extent of its range on a 0-5 m bathymetric layer). Its estimated AOO is 2,611 km² (calculated by clipping the distribution polygon to the 0-5 m bathymetric layer extracted from ETOPO), but since it is patchily distributed across this area, its AOO is actually likely to be less than 500 km².
Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States (Florida)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – western central
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:499Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:3802
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1-5
Lower depth limit (metres):5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Little is known about the population status of this species. It is presumed to be declining due to habitat degradation and loss. Conover (2000) collected over 2,000 specimens at 29 sites in 1999. A review on the genetic diversity and changes in the effective population size over a period of about 10 years is presently underway (S. O'Leary pers. comm. 2013).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This pelagic-neritic species inhabits quiet waters, coastal ponds, and semi-enclosed tidal shallow lagoons (Chernoff 2002). Its maximum size is 6.1 cm total length (TL).
Systems:Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Key Silverside is threatened by habitat loss throughout its range. Coastal development activity has reduced a number of sites especially ponds and formerly occupied areas (Gilbert 1978, Getter 1981, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission 2011). It may be susceptible to impacts from sea level rise (Reece et al. 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

This species' entire known range is found within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Research is needed on its population status, biology, ecology, and impact of potential threats.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability:Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.6. Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.4. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
suitability:Suitable season:resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:No
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Chernoff, B. 2002. Atherinopsidae - New World silversides. In: Carpenter, K.E. (ed.), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic, pp. 1090-1103. FAO, Rome.

Conover, D.O., Munch, S. and Lankford Jr., T.E. 2000. Current status of the Key Silverside, Menidia conchorum, in southern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2011. Supplemental information for the Key Silverside. Biological Status Review Report.

Getter, C.D. 1981. Ecology and survival of the key silverside, Menidia conchorum, an atherinid fish endemic to the Florida keys. PhD Dissertation. University of Miami.

Gilbert, C.R. 1978. Menidia conchorum. In: P.C.H. Prichard (ed.), Rare and endangered biota of Florida. 4: Fishes, University Presses of Florida.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Reece, J.S., Noss, R.F., Oetting, J., Hoctor, T. and Volk, M. 2013. A vulnerability assessment of 300 species in Florida: threats from sea level rise, land use and climate change. PLoS ONE 8(11): 0658. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080658.


Citation: Collette, B., Grubbs, D., Pezold, F., Simons, J., Caruso, J., Carlson, J., McEachran, J.D., Brenner, J., Tornabene, L., Chakrabarty, P., Robertson, R., Chao, L., Vega-Cendejas, M., Tolan, J., Carpenter, K.E., Munroe, T., Jelks, H. & Espinosa-Perez, H. 2015. Menidia conchorum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T13145A512306. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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