Mazama chunyi 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Mazama chunyi
Species Authority: Hershkovitz, 1959
Common Name(s):
English Peruvian Dwarf Brocket, Chunyi, Dwarf Brocket
Spanish Chuñi, Cabrito, Chuñitaruka, Cuñi, Venadillo
Taxonomic Notes: Identifying dwarf Andean deer has always been challenging. First dwarf brockets were confused with Pudu mephistophiles until studied by Hershkovitz (1959, 1982), and the relationship among the northern Andean forms (Mazama bricennii and M. rufina), the Peruvian form (M. chunyi) and other lowland dwarf brockets still needs clarification. To date, new specimens and camera trapping photographs from Bolivia (Yensen et al. 1994, Rumiz et al. 2007) and new specimens and photographs from Peru, provide evidence that the southern Andean form is the same as the M. chunyi originally described by Hershkovitz (1959). No subspecies are recognized.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4c; B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-06-15
Assessor(s): Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J.
Reviewer(s): Zanetti, E.S.Z. & González, S.
This species is considered to be Vulnerable due to an ongoing population decline, suspected to be greater than 30%, over a period of three generations (14 years) considering both the past (10 years) and future (4 years) suspected from loss of primary habitat. Habitat destruction has occurred for decades in the range of the Peruvian Dwarf Deer. Its distribution range has declined in Bolivia and Peru (at least 40% of the expected range in Bolivia somehow degraded due to colonization, deforestation, and burning for agriculture and cattle grazing (see the Threats section)). Threats to this species have not ceased and are not reversible. In addition small geographic range (area of occupancy <2,000 km²), severely fragmented populations and continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat are severely reducing populations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is known from southern Peru (Junin, Cuzco, and Puno) and northern Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba). Recent published accounts from Peru only reported its presence in the Cordillera of Vilcabamba (Emmons et al. 2001), in the south of Manu (Pacheco et al. 1993), and in Machu Picchu (ParksWatch 2004). An ongoing survey in Peru has found the species in eleven new localities, within and outside protected areas of the southeastern Andes. Recent surveys in Bolivia found the species in a number of locations within protected areas along the Andes from La Paz to Cochabamba. Ongoing geographic surveys in Peru (Barrio in prep.) will define more precisely the actual range, but most probably it will not increase significantly its extent of occurrence. Area of occupancy (AOO) is based on 60+ record points in Bolivia (with 2x2 km quadrats = 224 km², and with 4x4 km quadrats = 656 km² ) and 49 points in Peru (104 km² or 368 km²).
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Peru
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:500-2000
Lower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no estimates of abundance, population size or subpopulation ranges. Points from Bolivia may be grouped into 5 to 7 localities distributed in Madidi, Apolobamba, Cotapata and Carrasco, and marginally (needing confirmation) in Pilón Lajas, Isiboro Secure and Amboró. Points from Peru can be grouped in 7 to 9 localities distributed in Sandia, Carabaya, Quispicanchi, Paucartambo, Calca, Urubamba, La Convención, and Satipo, but include old collecting / report sites that are currently densely settled and degraded. Several sites of potentially good habitats recently surveyed in Peru showed its presence in most available habitat studied. Current distribution and abundance need to be further assessed. Decreasing population trend is suspected from habitat destruction.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Records from Bolivia include ‘ceja de selva’ elfin forest and grasslands (3,600 m), cloud montane forest ‘Yungas’ forests, and sub Andean forests (1,400 m), although local reports may extend that from 4,000 to 1,000 m (Rumiz et al. 2007). Records from Peru include the same vegetation types as in Bolivia, but without records in grasslands or over 3,500 m (Barrio in prep). Details on its ecology are unknown, although it seems to be solitary, active at day as well at night, and expected to be a browser frugivore in the forest understorey. Oxalis sp. has been identified among plant species eaten by Mazama chunyi. Nothing is known of reproduction or life in captivity
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hunting occurs as a source of meat and medicinal products at local level.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction occurs due to small scale cattle ranching and agriculture practised by local communities through forest cutting and burning of montane grasslands and shrublands. Coca plantations may be the main cause of habitat destruction in some areas of La Paz and Cochabamba in Bolivia, and in Puno and Cuzco in Peru. Mining, road construction and colonization expand habitat loss. Hunting occurs as a source of meat and medicinal products at local level but needs assessment. A grid analysis of the conservation status of habitats within the extent of occurrence estimated in Bolivia suggest that 58,6% of the distribution range is in good and very good status; and 41.4 % suffers degradation (25.5% regular, 15.9 % critical and very critical). Ongoing assessments in Peru (Barrio in prep.) suggest a similar situation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This taxon needs to be locally and regionally recognized as a potentially threatened species; for this, more field surveys, ecological studies and educational and management work with communities focusing on habitat destruction and hunting are needed. Monitoring of use by local communities may yield more specimens and show its contribution to subsistence. Since its distribution range coincides with the Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor, the species may become a symbol or conservation object for this initiative. In Peru, the species can be found in the appropriate habitat in Otishi and Manu National Parks, as well as in Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary. In Bolivia it has been found in six protected areas: Madidi, Apolobamba, Pilón Lajas, Cotapata, Isiboro Secure and Carrasco, but probably also occurs in Amboro.

Citation: Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J. 2016. Mazama chunyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T12913A22165860. . Downloaded on 26 October 2016.
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