|Scientific Name:||Leuciscus leuciscus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Siberian and East Asian populations usually referred to L. leuciscus are distinct species, L. baicalensis and L. dzungaricus. Recent molecular data suggest that this species is restricted to the Danube and rivers west of Odra and populations east of this border might belong to other species. More data are needed to test this hypotheses.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
|Range Description:||North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea basins; Caspian basin, in Volga and Ural drainages; Black Sea basin, from Danube to Dniepr drainages; Atlantic basin, in Seine drainage; Mediterranean basin from Rhône to Arc drainages (France). In Danube main river in Romania, only very localised, in Scandinavia north of 69°N and most of central Finland.|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Moderate to fast-flowing large streams to large rivers with rock or gravel bottom. Spawns in fast-flowing water on shallow gravel beds, often in small tributaries.
Lives up to 10 years. Spawns for the first time at three years. Usually spawns only 1-2 seasons during life. Migrates often some tens of km to spawning sites, which are often situated in tributaries. Spawns in March-April when temperature reaches 9°C. Males form large aggregations, each male defending a small territory. Females spawn only once a year and, in some populations, during a very short period (3-5 days). Females deposit the sticky eggs into excavations made in gravel. Feeding larvae live along shores. Early juveniles are benthic and inhabit very shallow shoreline habitats. When growing, they leave the shores for faster-flowing waters. They reach up to 85 mm SL during first year. Year class strength is closely related to high spring temperatures and absence of spring floods. Juveniles overwinter in cavities along the shores. Adults form dense swarms during winter in lower parts of rivers or in backwaters. Often migrates to spawning streams in autumn and overwinter there. Feeds on small invertebrates.
|Use and Trade:||This species is harvested for human consumption, and for sport fishing.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2013. Leuciscus leuciscus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2014.|
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