Lagothrix lagotricha 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Atelidae

Scientific Name: Lagothrix lagotricha
Species Authority: (Humboldt, 1812)
Common Name(s):
English Common Woolly Monkey, Humboldt's Woolly Monkey, Woolly Monkey
French Lagothriche De Humboldt, Singe Laineux
Spanish Macaco Barrigudo, Mono Barrigudo, Mono Caparro, Mono Lanudo Común
Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt, 1812) sensu
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of Lagothrix is based on Fooden (1963), but follows Groves (2001, 2005) in recognizing cana (E. Geoffroy, 1812), lugens Elliot, 1907, and poeppigii Schinz, 1844 as full species rather than subspecies of lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). Groves (2001, 2005) also recognized the form tschudii Pucheran, 1857, from Peru (see Cruz Lima 1945).

Defler (2003, 2004) does not agree with Groves (2001, 2005) in placing L. lugens as a distinct species and maintained it as a subspecies of L. lagotricha. Ruiz-Garcia and Alvarez (2003) confirmed that the Colombian lagotrichaand lugens are genetically distinct at least at the subspecies level.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Palacios, E., Boubli, J.-P., Stevenson, P., Di Fiore, A. & de la Torre, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species will decline by at least 30% over the coming 45 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and continued rates of habitat loss (mainly as a result of expanding agriculture).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Vulnerable (V)
1982 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:In Colombia, Lagothrix lagotricha is known throughout the Amazon lowlands north-east to the Río Uva, a left bank affluent of the Río Guaviare in Vichada (Defler 2004). It extends east to the Río Orinoco and it may occur in Venezuela to the south of the Orinoco between the Ríos Orinoco and Cassiquiare (Linares 1998). Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) reported that Lagothrix had never been collected in Venezuela, but that it should be found in the Territorio Federal Amazonas to the south of the Ventuari. It extends part way up the Rio Negro in Brazil – to the north at least as far the Ro Carauari. It does not occur in the eastern part of the Negro-Solimões interfluvium, but the exact boundaries of its occurrence there are not known. In Ecuador and Peru, it occurs north of the Rio Amazonas – Napo (L. poeppigii occurs to the south) (Tirira 2007). In Ecuador, the altitudinal range is 200 m to 1,400 m above sea level (Tirira 2007).
Countries occurrence:
Brazil (Amazonas); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Peru
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Common, but naturally at low densities. Nishimura and Izawa (1975) estimated a density of 5.5 individuals/km² on the Río Peneya, Colomibia. Defler (1989) recorded the same density on the Rio Apaporis.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Occurs in lowland primary terra firma forest, and occasionally also in secondary and disturbed/fragmented habitats. The enter flooded forests at certain times of the year to feed on fruits.

Izawa (1975, 1976) and Nishimura and Izawa (1975) studied this species on the Río Peneya, a tributary of the Río Caquetá, Colombia. Nishimura and Izawa (1975) observed a group from 42-43 individuals (11 adult males, 15 adult females, 11 or 12 juveniles, and 6 dependant infants) at Puerto Japó, Río Peneya, using home ranges greater than 400 ha. At another site (Puerto Tokio) they saw six groups which they believed ranged in size from 25-70 animals. They estimated a home range of 1,100 ha for the Puerto Japón group. Defler (1989, 1995, 1996, 1999; Defler and Defler 1996) studied a group on the Río Apaporis, Colombia. It ranged over 760 ha, largely (90%) overlapping with three neighbouring groups. Nishimura (1990b) studied the ranging and social behavior of two groups at Puerto Tokio. Group A had 45 individuals and ranged over 450 ha, ands group B had 13 individuals and used a home range of 350 ha over about 10 months of his observations. Other studies of woolly monkeys have shown that their diet consists mainly of fruits, but includes also young leaves, petioles, and flowers (Ramirez 1988).

Adult male weight mean 9.0 kg (8.0-10.0 kg, n=3); adult female weight mean 5.75 kg (5.0-6.5 kg, n=6) (Ford and Davis 1992).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Relatively wide-ranging, susceptible to hunting, but still occurs in a number of very remote regions. There is also some habitat loss due to agricultural expansion (including illegal crops).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Present in a number of protected areas, including:

Juami-Japurá Ecological Station (832,078 ha) (in range)

Amacayacu National Natural Park (293,000 ha) (INDERENA, 1989; Defler 2004)
La Paya National Natural (442,000 ha) (Polanco-Ochoa et al. 1999; Defler 2004 )
Cahuinarí National Natural Park (575,500 ha) (Defler 2004)
Serrania de Chiribiquete National Natural Park (1,280,000 ha) (in range)
Nukak National Natural Reserve (855,000 ha) (in range)

Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (205,249 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve (403,103 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cofán-Bermejo Ecological Reserve (55,451 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cuyabeno Ecological Reserve (Tirira 2007).

This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Ardila-C., J. O. and Florez-Z., A. N. 1994. Aspectos de la Ecología de un Grupo Silvestre de Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (Humboldt, 1812), Primates-Atelidae en la Amazonia Colombiana. Bachelor’s Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. 1987. Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 231–244.

da Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará, Brazil.

Defler, T. R. 1989. El bajo Apaporis: un Nuevo Parque Nacional? Colombia Su Gente y Paisaje 16: 244-255.

Defler, T. R. 1989. Recorridos y uso del espacio en un grupo de Lagothrix lagothricha (mono lanudo o churuco) en la Amazonia colombiana. Trianea 3: 183-205.

Defler, T. R. 1989. The status and some ecology of primates in the Colombian Amazon. Primate Conservation 10: 51-56.

Defler, T. R. 1995. The time budget of a group of wild woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagothricha. International Journal of Primatology 16: 107-120.

Defler, T. R. 1996. Aspects of the ranging pattern in a group of wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). American Journal of Primatology 38: 289-302.

Defler, T. R. 1999. Estación Biológica Caparú - Colombian Amazon. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 24-26.

Defler, T. R. 1999. Locomotion and posture in Lagothrix lagotricha. Folia Primatologica 70: 313-327.

Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.

Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.

Defler, T. R. and Defler, S. B. 1996. The diet of a group of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha). International Journal of Primatology 17: 161-190.

Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 213-247.

Ford, S. M. and Davis, L. C. 1992. Systematics and body size: Implications for feeding adaptation in New World monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88: 415-468.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Izawa, K. 1975. Foods and feeding behavior of monkeys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates 16(3): 295-316.

Izawa, K. 1976. Group sizes and compositions of monkeys on the upper Amazon basin. Primates 17: 367-399.

Linares, O.J. 1998. Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.

Nishimura, A. 1990. A sociological and behavioral study of woolly monkeys Lagothrix lagotricha, in the upper Amazon. The Science and Enginering Review of Doshisha University 31: 87-121.

Nishimura, A. and Izawa, K. 1975. The group characteristics of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) in the upper Amazonian basin. In: S. Kondo, M. Kaeai, A. Ehara and S. Kawamura (eds), Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Tokyo, Japan.

Palanco-Ochoa, R., Jaimes V. and Piragua, W. 1999. Los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombia Ciencias 23: 671–682.

Ramirez, M. 1988. The woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates. Vol. 2, pp. 539-575. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.

Ruiz-Garcia, M. and Alvarez, D. 2003. RFLP analysis of mtDNA from six platyrrhine genera: phylogenetic inferences. Folia Primatologica 74(2): 59–70.

Rylands, A. B. 1994. Macaco-barrigudo, Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.

Williams, L. 1967. Breeding Humboldt's woolly monkey Lagothrix lagotricha at Murrayton Woolly Monkey Sanctuary. International Zoo Yearbook, pp. 86-89.

Wolf, R. H., Harrison, R. M. and Martin, T. W. 1975. A review of reproductive patterns in New World monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science 25: 814-821.

Citation: Palacios, E., Boubli, J.-P., Stevenson, P., Di Fiore, A. & de la Torre, S. 2008. Lagothrix lagotricha. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T11175A3259920. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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