|Scientific Name:||Ischnura gemina|
|Species Authority:||(Kennedy, 1917)|
Celaenura gemina Kennedy, 1917
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Donnelly, N., Suhling, F. & Clausnitzer, V. (Odonata Red List Authority)|
This is one of the rarest Odonates in the United States and it undoubtedly deserves a threatened status (Westfall and May 1996). Additional populations have been discovered in the San Francisco area resulting in the US Fish and Wildlife Service downgrading the species from the US Endangered category.
The species is very localized in urban areas, with probably no more than a few hundred at each site; perhaps 500 to 1,000 at the best sites (Garrison and Hafernik 1981). Several small populations have gone extinct since their discovery. Historically some populations have been extirpated due to urbanization and some habitat has naturally converted from small shallow ponds to dry pond beds; this succession is still a threat. There is also a suggested threat from hybridization with I. denticollis. The species has a relatively long life and good dispersal ability provides the opportunity to take advantage of newly formed habitats (it apparently tolerates some disturbance/pollution).
The total range of the species is probably less than 500 square miles (<5,000 km²), but there are more than 10 known locations, therefore the species cannot be listed as threatened under criterion B. The global population size is likely fewer than 2,500 (NatureServe 2006), and with 500 to 1,000 individuals at the best sites, and a declining trend (NatureServe 2006), the species meets the requirements for Vulnerable under criterion C.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. It possibly extends north-south beyond the Bay Area (Bick 2003), with a total range area probably less than 500 square miles.|
Native:United States (California)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Current population size is unknown.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Temporary urban pools at new construction (Garrison and Hafernik 1981). Also in depressions at the foot of steep hillsides where water seeps down (D.R. Paulson pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||Small range, development.|
|Citation:||Abbott, J.C. 2007. Ischnura gemina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.|
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