|Scientific Name:||Pterodroma feae|
|Species Authority:||(Salvadori, 1899)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomic note Pterodroma feae (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split into P. feae and P. deserta by Jesus et al. (2009) based upon genetic evidence, morphological differences and a temporal difference in breeding seasons between the two disjunct populations. However, this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group because all described differences are small and not unexpected in an insular form with a high degree of philopatry; the difference in breeding season is marked, but the two populations are reasonably well separated geographically.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Menezes, D. & Oliveira, P.|
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it probably has a small population, which breeds within a moderately small range, on five islands. It faces a number of threats, but there is presently no evidence of an overall decline. Nevertheless, its restricted breeding range leaves it moderately susceptible to stochastic events and human impacts.
|Range Description:||Pterodroma feae breeds on four islands of Cape Verde (P. f. feae), Fogo (minimum 80 pairs; Ratcliffe et al. 2000), Santo Antão (minimum 200 pairs; Ratcliffe et al. 2000), São Nicolau (c.30 pairs; Ratcliffe et al. 2000) and small numbers on Santiago. It also breeds on Bugio in the Desertas off Madeira, Portugal (P. f. deserta). An estimated 500-1,000 pairs breed in Cape Verde (Hazevoet 1995; Ratcliffe et al. 2000), although this must be regarded as an absolute minimum as further colonies probably exist on Fogo and Santa Antão and individuals have also been observed breeding in the central mountain range of Santiago island (Ratcliffe et al. 2000). Birds have been trapped on the Azores, but the existence of a breeding colony has never been confirmed (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). Based on surveys in 2006-2007, a further 120-150 pairs breed on Bugio (a lower figure than previous estimates of 150-180 from 2001), although where the population appears stable (Ramirez 2008). The total population has been estimated at c.3,000 individuals (Brooke 2004). There is an ongoing review of the taxonomic status of the populations on Bugio and Cape Verde. If these populations are assigned species status, their threat status will need to be re-assessed. Birds may occur at considerable distances from the Cape Verde islands, even during the breeding season, with some birds moving south after breeding and others remaining in the region throughout the year (Hazevoet 1995).|
Native:Cape Verde; Portugal (Azores); Portugal (Azores); Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); United States; United States; United States
Vagrant:Ireland; Israel; Spain (Canary Is.); United Kingdom
Present - origin uncertain:Guinea-Bissau; Morocco; Senegal; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population has been estimated at c.3,000 individuals, equivalent to c.2,000 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species breeds at 80-300 m, usually in burrows excavated in the soil, although recently nests were found in rock crevices in areas were soil is not present(D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). Birds return to their breeding grounds in early June and juveniles fledge throughout December (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007.|
|Major Threat(s):||Historically, the species and its breeding sites have been affected by habitat degradation caused by introduced goats, rabbits and mice (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). However, rabbits and mice have been controlled since 2006 (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007) and goats are reported to only rarely visit the plateau where the breeding sites are located on Bugio (Ramirez 2008). Predation and disturbance by Yellow-legged Gulls Larus cachinnans are potential threats on Bugio. On the Cape Verde islands, birds are predated by cats and rats, collected by people for food and medicinal purposes, and breeding sites are limited by overgrazing by goats (Barov and Derhé 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
A European action plan was published in 1996 (Zino et al. 1996) and its implementation reviewed in 2010 (Barov and Derhé 2011). A national park was established at Chã das Caldeiras on Fogo (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). The conservation of Pterodroma feae was incorporated into the park's agenda (Ratcliffe et al. 2000; D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007), but the park administration is having to deal with serious financial and operational problems (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). Since 2006, an eradication programme for rabbits and mice has been in force, and is ongoing. As a result, their effect on the most sensitive areas is already negligible. A contingency plan for accidental introductions of invasive species is being developed. A goat eradication programme is ongoing and not yet complete. The threat from L. cachinnans is being monitored (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). Natural vegetation has been replanted, anti-erosion blankets installed, wardening and monitoring conducted and artificial burrows installed on Bugio as part of a LIFE Nature project (Menezes 2007; Menezes et al. 2011). Geolocators were attached to some individuals from 2007 to investigate foraging ecology (Ramirez 2008).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct coordinated surveys to obtain an up-to-date estimate for the total breeding population. Continue annual surveys to monitor population trends. Study the at-sea distribution of the species. Complete control measures against goats. Continue control measures against rabbits and mice. Discourage off-take by people on the Cape Verde islands through awareness campaigns. Control cats and rats on the Cape Verde islands. Assess the impact of L. cachinnans through detailed research.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Pterodroma feae. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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