|Scientific Name:||Cacatua sulphurea|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1788)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Imansyah, J., Kelly, D., Trainor, C. & Verbelen, F.|
This cockatoo has suffered (and may continue to suffer) an extremely rapid population decline, owing to unsustainable trapping for the cagebird trade. It therefore qualifies as Critically Endangered.
|Range Description:||Cacatua sulphurea is endemic to Timor-Leste and Indonesia, where it was formerly common throughout Nusa Tenggara (from Bali to Timor), on Sulawesi and its satellite islands, and the Masalembu Islands (in the Java Sea). It has undergone a dramatic decline, which is still ongoing, particularly in the last quarter of the 20th century, such that it is now extinct on many islands and close to extinction on most others. Sumba appears to support the largest remaining population, tentatively estimated (in 1992) at c.3,200 birds (but was reported to declining by perhaps 500 birds annually, with just 10% of the island still forested in 34 fragments [Walker et al. 2005]), with other significant (but considerably smaller) populations on Komodo (c.500 individuals), Sulawesi, Buton, Moyo, Timor-Leste (Trainor et al. undated), Alor (a loose flock comprising c. 18 birds was observed in 2009) and Pantar (one or two cage birds captured on Pantar) (F. Verbelen in litt. 2012). Tiny populations of just a few individuals also exist in the Tukangbesi Islands, on Oroho Island (a satellite of Wangi Wangi Island) and on Lintea Selatan (a satellite of Tomea Island) (D. Kelly in litt. 2009) and on Roti island (near Timor) (Johnstone and Jepson 1996, Trainor 2005, F. Verbelen in litt. 2012). The Komodo population alone (where poaching is more covert) declined by an estimated 60% between 2000-2005 (Imansyah et al. 2005). Its current status on several small islands is unclear, but surveys of Masakambing in the Masalembu Islands in 2008 found only ten individuals remaining of race abbotti (Anon 2008, Metz et al. 2009, Nandika et al. 2009), with only eight recorded in 2009 (Nandika et al. 2009). Local information suggests that the species was extirpated from Masalembu Island in 1987, owing largely to the trapping and killing of birds that accompanied the exploration of the archipelago in the late 1980s (Nandika et al. 2009). A feral population of several hundred birds exists in Hong Kong. It is likely extirpated from Lombok (F. Verbelen in litt. 2012).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Based on recent surveys within various parts of the species's range, C. Trainor (in litt. 2007) has estimated the global population at fewer than 7,000 individuals: 3,200-5,000 on Sumba, 500 on Komodo, 200-300 on Timor Leste, 200-300 on Sulawesi, 20-50 on West Timor, 40-70 on Flores, 50-100 on Sumbawa, 100 on Rinca and c.700 other birds in total. It is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits forest (including evergreen, moist deciduous, monsoon and semi-evergreen), forest edge, scrub and agriculture up to 500 m on Sulawesi, and 800 m (sometimes 1,500 m) in Nusa Tenggara. On at least some islands (e.g. Sumba), it appears heavily dependent on closed-canopy primary forest. Breeding takes place from September to May on Sumba (Walker et al. 2005). It nests in tree cavities with specific requirements, tending use a chink in the trunk or branch, or a pre-existing nest-hole made by another species, often in dead, snagged or rotting trees (Nandika et al. 2009). On Masakabing Island, observations suggest that the species's favoured foods include male fruits of Artocarpus communis, fruit and flowers of Cocos nucifera (coconut palm), young leaves and flowers of Ceiba petandra, mangroves, and male flowers of Brassus sudaica, with consumption of the fruit, flowers and seeds of at least six other species observed (Metz et al. 2009). Nesting has been observed in C. nucifera, A. communis, C. petandra, Tamarindus indica and Avicennia sp (Nandika et al. 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||Its precipitous decline is almost entirely attributable to unsustainable exploitation for internal and international trade. Large-scale logging and conversion of forest to agriculture across its range has exacerbated the decline, and the use of pesticides since around 1989 is a further potential threat. At least formerly, the species was regarded as a crop-pest, and consequently persecuted. High rainfall years appear to limit productivity considerably, resulting in very low recruitment. Conversely, rainfall on Komodo has been low in recent years leading to limited availability of water sources. Competition for cavity nest sites with other parrots and owls in large trees (those targeted by logging activities) leads to low productivity (Walker et al. 2005).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I (2005). A cooperative recovery plan has been developed and adopted. Populations occur in several protected areas, the most important being Rawa Aopa Watumohai and Caraente National Parks (on Sulawesi) which supports up to 100 individuals (Nandika 2006), Suaka Margasatwa Nature Reserve on Pulau Moyo, Komodo National Park and two national parks on Sumba: Manupeu-Tanahdaru and Laiwangi-Wanggameti. The declared Nini Konis Santana National Park in Timor holds an estimated 100 birds (Trainor et al. undated). Moratoria on international trade are in place, although it is likely that a large proportion of the trade is domestic.
Several cockatoo subpopulations have increased on Sumba between 1992 and 2002, due to conservation efforts (including local education, eco-tourism and law enforcement), although densities remained below those typical of other cockatoo species (Cahill et al. 2006). Following surveys in 2008 and 2009, the Indonesian Parrot Project and Konservasi Kakatua Indonesia have initiated meetings with community leaders and villagers on Masakambing and Masalembu, as well as the local military and police, to raise awareness and garner support for the species's conservation (Metz et al. 2009). A conservation-awareness-pride programme has also begun to engage the school children of the Masalembu Archipelago (Metz et al. 2009, Nandika et al. 2009). A 'village regulation' was drafted to make it illegal to trap, own or transport the species, and to initiate measures to reduce habitat destruction and employ a former village head to monitor and protect nests and study the species; the document was signed in May 2009 with 50 community representatives present, including the Chief of Police (Nandika et al. 2009). An awareness campaign to tackle illegal trade will also target the relevant officials, and the remaining habitat will be surveyed (Metz et al. 2009). The species's pest status may be tackled by the planting of crops to compensate for losses and to act as a 'sacrifice crop'. A repeated census of the abbotti population is planned, along with studies into its life history and ecology (Metz et al. 2009). On the smaller islands of Roti, Alor and Pantar, enforcement of hunting and trading regulations is low (F. Verbelen in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys (including Roti but also further surveys on Alor and Pantar) to identify the most appropriate areas for conservation action and to periodically monitor key populations by repeating surveys conducted 8-10 years ago. Provide support for relevant protected areas and conservation initiatives within its range and protect nest-trees where possible. Strengthen control, law enforcement and monitoring of trade. Improve law enforcement in designated protected areas and other key areas for trade including ports, markets, etc. Promote widespread community-based conservation initiatives. Recommendations made specifically for the protection of the species in Komodo National Park were to conduct annual monitoring, maintain regular patrols, raise awareness in local communities and study human activities and impacts within the park (Imansyah et al. 2005, Benstead 2006). Conduct ecological research to clarify options for its management and conservation. Additional targets should be to study the abundance and distribution of nest holes and water sources. Providing artificial water sources near nest locations, i.e water ponds, is essential for Yellow-crested Cockatoo on Komodo Island.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Cacatua sulphurea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
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