|Scientific Name:||Somateria fischeri|
|Species Authority:||(Brandt, 1847)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species breeds along the coasts of north-east Siberia, Russia and east from the Leni Delta to north Alaska, USA. Its wintering grounds have only recently been discovered in an otherwise unbroken sea of ice halfway between St Lawrence and St Matthew Islands in the Bering sea (Balogh 1996, Petersen 1996).|
Native:Russian Federation; United States
Vagrant:Norway; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated at c.330,000-390,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006). Although a massive decline of over 90% in breeding birds has been reported in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska (Stehn et al. 1993), no similar decline has been noted in Russia and 155,000 birds were counted on its wintering grounds in 1995 (Balogh 1996). The population in Russia has more recently been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009) although there is a degree of uncertainty in these estimates. Surveys in north Alaska during 1993-1995 indicated 7,000-10,000 breeding birds, with no indication of a declining trend. Recent survey work has discovered a huge concentration of this species in the Bering sea south of St Lawrence Island (Petersen et al. 1999). Estimates suggest that at least 333,000 birds winter in single-species flocks in the pack ice of the Bering Sea (Petersen et al. 1999), representing a total population estimate similar to that of c.400,000 individuals made during the 1970s.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species breeds on small lakes, pools, bogs and streams of the tundra. It mainly feeds on molluscs but will also take crustaceans, with a more varied diet in summer including insects, arachnids, berries and seeds. It feeds by diving, and will pluck or dabble on the surface. Breeding begins in May or June in single pairs or loose groups (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
Conservation Actions Underway
In 2000 the US Fish and Wildlife Service designated 62,386 km² of critical coastal habitat for the conservation of this species (Anon. 2001a).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Somateria fischeri. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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