Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Not assigned

Scientific Name: Syncordulia gracilis
Species Authority: (Burmeister, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow Presba

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-04-01
Assessor(s): Samways, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Kipping, J., Simaika, J.P., Samways, M.J., Suhling, F. (Odonata Red List Authority) & Pollock, C.M. (IUCN Red List Unit)
This species is rare everywhere in its range, and for a long time it has not been seen at many sites where it historically was present (e.g., Michell's Pass). With the removal of invasive alien trees, it has recovered at some localities (e.g., Franschhoek Pass), however it is still Vulnerable. It is known only from a few sites (around six locations).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2007 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to South Africa. Two populations are known; one in the Western Cape, and one in the eastern Cape. It appears to have disappeared from Kwazulu-Natal, Drakensberg.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal - Possibly Extinct, Western Cape)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0-2000
Number of Locations:6
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population size is unknown, but the population appears to be stable at present.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Montane streams and rivers, with undisturbed fynbos margins. Clear, fast, hard-bottomed rivers in treeless river valleys (Samways 2006).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Invasive alien trees are the most important threat. Agricultural activities that cause river siltation and pollution and alien fish may also be a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No specific measures are in place or envisaged. However, conservation of catchments through the removal of alien invasive trees is clearly beneficial for this species and research into population numbers and range, and trends/monitoring would also be valuable.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Samways, M.J. 1999. Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28: 13-62.

Samways, M.J. 2002. A strategy for national red listing invertebrates based on experiences with Odonata in South Africa. African Entomology 10: 43-52.

Samways, M.J. 2004. Critical species of Odonata in southern Africa. International Journal of Odonatology 7: 255-262.

Samways, M.J. 2006. Honing Red List assessments of lesser known taxa in biodiversity hotspots. Biodiversity and Conservation 16(9): 2575-2586.

Samways, M.J. 2006. National Red List of South African Odonata. Odonatologica 35: 341-368.

Samways, M.J. and Taylor, S. 2004. Impacts of invasive alien plants on red-listed South African dragonflies (Odonata). South African Journal of Science 100: 78-80.

Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2002. A fieldguide to the dragonflies of South Africa. Privately published by the authors, Nylstroom.

Citation: Samways, M.J. 2010. Syncordulia gracilis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T63202A12628404. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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