Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Lacertidae

Scientific Name: Podarcis carbonelli
Species Authority: Pérez Mellado, 1981
Common Name(s):
Spanish Lagartija de Carbonell
Podarcis bocagei subspecies carbonelli Perez Mellado, 1981
Podarcis carbonellae Perez Mellado, 1981
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly a subspecies of Podarcis bocagei, but was raised to species rank (Sá-Sousa 2000a, Sá-Sousa and Harris 2002) based on genetic differences (see also: Harris et al. 2002; Harris and Sá-Sousa 2001, 2002; Pinho et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Listed as Endangered, because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its Extent of Occurrence, in its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of locations, and in the number of mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Endangered (EN)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs only in highly fragmented populations in western and central Portugal, occurring more contiguously in Aveiro in central Portugal. In western Portugal it occurs down to sea-level in many fragmented sites, while in central Portugal it occurs in hilly sites above 500m. In Spain it is known from two areas in on the northern slopes of the central mountain system at 500-1,200m. It also occurs at Coto Doñana in southwestern Spain at sea-level, and on the Berlenga Islands in Portugal (as a separate subspecies, P.c. berlengensis).
Countries occurrence:
Portugal; Spain
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It can be common in suitable habitat. The southern populations are generally very small, but can be abundant in tiny areas. However, many populations are probably in decline, especially in the south of its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In Spain and central Portugal it occurs in oak forest. At sea-level it lives only in sand dunes. It lays one to three egg clutches a year, with one to five eggs in each.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The southern populations are almost certainly at risk from climate change. Loss of habitat due to touristic developments in the south, and wood plantations (pine) in central Portugal are also serious threats. Fires are an additional threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Many of the southern populations are protected (including in the Coto Doñana National Park). In central Portugal and Spain, some populations are in natural parks.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.3. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Sand Dunes
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

0. Root -> 100.1. OLD 1.1.1-Policy-base actions->Management plans->Development
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Andreu, A., Bea, A., Braña, F., Galán, P., López-Jurado, L.F., Pérez-Mellado, V., Pleguezuelos, J.M. and Salvador, A. 1998. Fauna Ibérica. Reptiles. 10: 1-705.

Harris, D.J. and Sá-Sousa, P. 2001. Species distinction and relationships of the western Iberian Podarcis lizards (Reptilia, Lacertidae) based on morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Herpetological Journal: 129-136.

Harris, D.J. and Sá-Sousa, P. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis): is Podarcis hispanica a species complex? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 75-81.

Harris, D.J., Carranza, S., Arnold, E.N., Pinho, C. and Ferrand, N. 2002. Complex biogeographical distribution of genetic variation within Podarcis wall lizards across the Strait of Gibraltar. Journal of Biogeography: 1257-1262.

IUCN. 2009. European Species on the IUCN Red List. Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2009).

Malkmus, R. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Portugal, Madeira and the Azores-archipelago. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell (Germany).

Pérez-Mellado, V. 1981. La lagartija de Bocage, Podarcis bocagei (Seoane,1884): primeros datos sobre su distribución, colorido y ecología. Amphibia-Reptilia: 253-268.

Pérez-Mellado, V. 1981. Nuevos datos sobre la sistemática y distribución de Podarcis bocagei (Seoane,1884) (Sauria, Lacertidae) en la Península Ibérica. Amphibia-Reptilia: 259-265.

Pérez-Mellado, V. 1986. Podarcis bocagei - Nordwestsibirische Mauereidechse. In: Böhme, W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/II., Echsen III (Podarcis)., pp. 15-24. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Pinho, C., Harris, D.J. and Ferrand, N. 2003. Genetic polymorphism of 11 allozyme loci in populations of wall lizards (Podarcis sp.) from the Iberian peninsula and North Africa. Biochemical Genetics: 343-359.

Sá-Sousa, P. 2000. Distribución de la lagartija Podarcis carbonelli (Pérez-Mellado, 1981) en Portugal. Boletín de la Asociación herpetológica española: 12-16.

Sá-Sousa, P. and Harris, D.J. 2002. Podarcis carbonelli Perez-Mellado, 1981 is a distinct species. Amphibia-Reptilia: 459-468.

Sindaco, R. and Jeremčenko, V.K. 2008. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated Checklist and Distributional atlas of the turtles, crocodiles, amphisbaenians and lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy).

Citation: Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano. 2009. Podarcis carbonelli. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T61545A12512496. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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