Cynocephalus volans


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Cynocephalus volans
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Philippine Flying Lemur, Flying Lemur
Cynocephalus philippinensis Waterhouse, 1838

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Gonzalez, J.C., Custodio, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R.
Reviewer(s): Chiozza, F. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Least Concern as it has a presumed large population, it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category and although there has been significant deforestation the species persists in degraded habitat. Commercial logging is a threat.
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is only found in the Mindanao Faunal Region. It has been recorded from the following islands: Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Dinagat, Leyte, Maripi, Mindanao (Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, South Cotabato, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), Samar, Siargao and Tongquil (Heaney . 1998; Rickart et al. 1993; Corbet and Hill 1992).
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is widespread and common and populations are stable (Heaney et al. 1998).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is common in lowland primary and secondary forest, and in mixed forest and orchard (Rabor 1986; Rickart et al. 1993; Wischusen et al. 1992, 1994; Wischusen and Richmond 1989; L. Heaney et al. unpubl. data). This species can also tolerate disturbed habitats. It feeds on leaves and some fruit.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation is a threat to this species, especially at lower elevations. Commercial logging of second growth forest is also threat. This widespread destruction of lowland forest makes them somewhat vulnerable, but their ability to persist in disturbed forest makes them a relatively resilient species. Their fur is used for making hats in Bohol (C. Custodio pers. comm. 2006). The species is persecuted in Samar because it is thought to be a bad omen (J.C. Gonzales pers. comm. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is found in a number of protected areas.

Bibliography [top]

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.

Rickart, E. A., Heaney, L. R., Heidman, P. D. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.

Wischusen, E. W. and Richmond, M. E. 1989. Techniques for capturing and marking Philippine flying lemurs (Cynocephalus volans). Malaysian Nature Journal 43: 100-105.

Wischusen, E. W. , Ingle, N. R. and Richmond, M. E. 1992. Observations on the reproductive biology and sexual behavior of the Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans). Malayan Nature Journal 46: 65-71.

Wischusen, E. W. , Ingle, N. R. and Richmond, M. E. 1994. Rate of digesta passage in the Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 164: 173-178.

Citation: Gonzalez, J.C., Custodio, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R. 2008. Cynocephalus volans. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.
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