Rana temporaria 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English European Common Frog
Spanish Rana Bermeja
Rana aragonensis Planca Soler, Rodriguez Vieites and Suarez Martinez, 1995
Rana honnorati Héron-Royer, 1881
Rana muta Laurenti, 1768
Rana platyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1847
Taxonomic Notes: Rana aragonensis is included as a synonym of R. temporaria following the work of Veith et al. (2002). Rana honnorati is included in R. temporaria following Veith et al. (2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Kuzmin, S., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Andreone, F., Nyström, P., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Bosch, J., Miaud, C., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2004 – Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:It is widespread throughout most of Europe, ranging from northern Spain to the Urals (absent from southern and central Iberia, much of southern Italy [scattered Appenine populations] and the Caucasus), and eastwards to the western part of West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan through northern Greece and Bulgaria. It has a patchy distribution in the mountainous parts of the Balkans. Recorded from sea level to elevations approaching 2,700 m asl (Pyrenees).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is generally very common, although localized declines have recently been noted in a number of western European countries (e.g. Switzerland, Spain).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Many terrestrial (associated with woodland) and aquatic habitat types are used. Present in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, forested tundra and steppe, bush and shrublands, glades, grasslands, dry and wet meadows, marshes, fields, rural gardens, parks, and urban areas. Aquatic habitats include both temporary and permanent ponds, lakes and rivers; spawning and larval development occurs in these waterbodies. It does well in many modified habitats such as rural gardens.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. The main localized threat is the general pollution and drainage of breeding sites and wetlands. Over collection for medical research, food and commercial purposes is a threat in parts of its range. Deforestation might have led to a gradual "northward retreat" of the species over southern parts of its distribution. Overcollection for medical research has been a threat in the past, however the extent to which it is a current threat is unknown.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix III of the Berne Convention and on Annex V of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists, and is protected by national legislation in a number of countries. It is present in many protected areas. In parts of its range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.2. Grassland - Subarctic
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.10. Wetlands (inland) - Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Marginal  
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.

1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Anon. 1993. United Kingdom National Survey. FrogLog: 2.

Arano, B., Esteban, M. and Herrero, P. 1993. Evolutionary Divergence of the Iberian Brown Frogs. Annales des Sciences Naturelles – Zoologie et Biologie animale: 49-57.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.

Arnold, H.R. 1995. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. ITE research publication: 40.

Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.

Capula, M. and Bagnoli, C. 1982. Il Triturus alpestris (Laurenti) e la Rana temporaria L. nell'Appennino centrale. Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Verona: 333-344.

Cooke, A.S. 1972. Indications of recent changes in status in British Isles of frog (Rana temporaria) and toad (Bufo bufo). Journal of Zoology: 161.

Cooke, A.S. 1975. Spawn site selection and colony size of the frog (Rana temporaria) and the toad (Bufo bufo). Journal of Zoology: 29-38.

Cooke, A.S. 1995. Road mortality of common toads (Bufo bufo) near a breeding site, 1974-1994. Amphibia-Reptilia: 87-90.

Cooke, A.S. 2000. Monitoring a breeding population of Common Toads (Bufo bufo) in a housing development. Herpetological Bulletin: 12-15.

Cooke, A.S. and Oldham, R.S. 1995. Establishment of populations of the common frog, Rana temporaria, and common toad, Bufo bufo, in a newly created reserve following translocation. Herpetological Journal: 173-180.

Cunningham, A.A., Langton, T.E., Bennett, P.M., Drury, S.E., Gough, R.E. and Kirkwood, J.K. 1993. Unusual mortality associated with poxvirus-like particles in frogs (Rana temporaria). Veterinary Record: 141-2.

Cunningham, A.A., Langton, T.E.S., Bennett, P.M.B., Lewin, J.F., Drury, S.E.N., Gough, R.E. and Macgregor, S.K. 1996. Pathological and microbiological findings from incidents of unusual mortality of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London: Biological Sciences.: 1539-1557.

Dely, G. 1967. Kétéltűek-Amphibia: Magyarország Állatvilága, Faunae Hungariae. Ákadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Denton, J. 2001. Rana temporaria (Common Frog): Occurrence in ground water springs. Herpetological Bulletin: 30.

Dubois, A. 1982. Notes sur les grenouilles brunes (Groupe de Rana temporaria Linne, 1758). I. Introduction. Alytes: 56-70.

Dubois, A. 1984. Notes sur les grenouilles brunes (Groupe de Rana temporaria Linné, 1758). III. Un critere meconnu pour distinguer Rana dalmatina de Rana temporaria. Alytes: 117-124.

Fog, K. 1995. Amphibian conservation in Denmark. FrogLog.

Galán, P. 1989. Diferenciación morfológica y selección de hábitats en las ranas pardas del noroeste iberica: Rana iberica Boulenger, 1879 y Rana temporaria parvipalmata Seoane, 1885. Treballs de la Societat Catalana d'Ictiologia y Herpetologia: 193-209.

Galán, P. 1999. Conservación de la herpetofauna gallega. Situación actual de los anfibios y reptiles de Galicia. Universidade da Coruña, Monografía 72. A Coruña.: 286pp.

Garanin, V.I. 2000. The distribution of amphibians in the Volga-Kama region. Advances in Amphibian Research in the former Soviet Union, pp. 79-132.

Gerlach, G. and Bally, A. 1992. Das Grasfroschsterben in der Nord-Schweiz. Schriftenreihe Umwelt - Natur und Landschaft: 1-82.

Gerlach, G. and Bally, A. 1992. Mass mortality of the common frog (Rana temporaria) in northern Switzerland. FrogLog: 2.

Gosá, A. 1998. El declive de una población costera cantábrica de rana bermeja (Rana temporaria). Munibe: 59-71.

Grossenbacher, K. 1994. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Amphibien der Schweiz. In: BUWAL (ed.), Rote Liste der gefährdeten Tierarten in der Schweiz, pp. 33-34. BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft), Bern.

Halliday, T. 2001. Recent studies of European frogs reveal complexities of the link with UV-B. FrogLog.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Joly, P. 1992. The amphibian fauna of the French Upper-Rhône floodplain. The Lavours marsh and Jons sector. Alytes: 117-129.

Kalezic, M. and Dzukic, G. 2001. Amphibian status in Serbia and Montenegro (FR Yugoslavia). FrogLog.

Korky, J.K. and Webb, R.G. 1993. Breeding habits of the common frog, Rana temporaria L. (Anura: Ranidae) in the Republic of Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society: 18-29.

Kovács, T. and Papp, M. 2002. Breeding pond survey in Hungary: and example of sucessful cooperation. FrogLog.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.

Loman, J. 2003. Inventering av vanlig groda och åkergroda i Skåne 2002. Skåne i utveckling: 1-28.

Luscher, B., Grossenbacher, K. and Scholl, A. 2001. Genetic differentiation of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in the Swiss Alps. Amphibia-Reptilia: 141-154.

Mensi, P., Lattes, A., Macario, B., Salvidio, S., Giacoma, C. and Balletto, E. 1992. Taxonomy and evolution of European brown frogs. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: 293-311.

Meyer, A.H., Schmidt, B.R. and Grossenbacher, K. 1998. Analysis of three amphibian populations with quarter-century long time-series. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B.: 523-528.

Miaud, C., Guyétant, R. and Elmberg, J. 1999. Variations in life-history traits in the Common frog Rana temporaria (Amphibia, Anura): a literature review and new data from the French Alps. Journal of Zoology: 61-73.

Mlynarski, M. 1966. Plazy I Gady Polski. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warszawa.

Pidancier, N., Gauthier, P., Miquel, C. and Pompanon, F. 2002. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci identified in the common frog (Rana temporaria, Amphibia, Ranidae). Molecular Ecology Notes: 304.

Pleguezuelos, J.M. 1997. Distribucion y Biogeografia de los Anfibios y Reptiles en España y Portugal. Asociacion Herpetologica Española, Las Palmas de Gran Canarias.

Pleguezuelos, J.M. and Villafranca, C. 1997. Distribución altitudinal de la herpetofauna ibérica. In: Pleguezuelos, J.M. (ed.), Distribucion y Biogeografia de los Anfibios y Reptiles en España y Portugal, pp. 321-34. Monografías de Herpetología 3. Universidad de Granada-Asociación Herpetológica Española, Granada.

Pleguezuelos, J.M., Márquez, R. and Lizana, M. 2002. Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la naturaleza-Associación Herpetológica Española, Madrid.

Puky, M. 2000. A kétéltûek védelme Magyarországon (Conservation of amphibians in Hungary). In: Faragó, S. (ed.), Gerinces állatfajok védelme (Conservation of vertebrate species), pp. 143-158. Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem Erdõmérnöki Kar, Sopron.

Puky, M. 2003. Amphibian mitigation measures in Central-Europe. In: Irwin, L.C., Garrett, P. and McDermott, K.P. (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 26-31 August, 2003, Lake Placid, New York, USA, pp. 413-429. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, USA.

Puky, M. et al. 2003. Preliminary herpetological atlas of Hungary. Varangy Akciócsoport Egyesület, Budapest.

Salvador, A. 1996. Amphibians of northwest Africa. Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service 109: 1-43.

Schabetsberger, R., Langer, H., Jersabek, C.D. and Goldschmid, A. 2000. On age structure and longevity in two populations of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758), at high altitude breeding sites in Austria (Anura: Bufonidae). Herpetozoa: 187-191.

Severtsov, A.S., Lyapkov, S.M. and Surova, G.S. 1998. Relationships of the ecological niches in Rana temporaria and Rana arvalis. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii: 279-301.

Sindaco, R., Doria, G., Razzetti, E. and Bernini, F. 2006. Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles\\Atlante Degli Anfibi E Dei Rettili D'Italia. Societas Herpetologica Italica - Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze.

Smit, G. 1998. DAPTF-Netherlands Report. FrogLog.

Szilárd, N. and Csengele, K. 2001. Amphibian harvesting in Romania. FrogLog.

Veith, M., Kosuch, J. and Vences, M. 2003. Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 310-327.

Veith, M., Vences, M., Vieites, D.R., Nieto-Roman, S. and Palanca, A. 2002. Genetic differentiation and population structure within the Spanish common frogs (Rana temporaria complex; Ranidae, Amphibia). Folia Zoologica: 307-318.

Vences, M., Galán, P., Palanca, A., Vieites, D.R., Nieto, S. and Rey, J. 2000. Summer microhabitat use and diel activity cycles in a high altitude Pyrenean population of Rana temporaria. Herpetological Journal 10(2): 49-56.

Vences, M., Palanca Soler, A., Rodriguez Vieites, D. and Nieto Roman, S. 1997. Designation and description of a lectotype of Rana aragonensis Palanca Soler et al., 1995. Herpetozoa: 129-134.

Vershinin, V.L. 1997. Report from the Urals. FrogLog.

Viertel, B. 1999. Salt tolerance of Rana temporaria: spawning site selection and survival during embryonic development (Amphibia, Anura). Amphibia-Reptilia: 161-171.

Vogrin, N. 1997. The status of amphibians in Slovenia. FrogLog.

Watson, W. 1999. Amphibians and Crassula helmsii. FrogLog.

Citation: Kuzmin, S., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Andreone, F., Nyström, P., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Bosch, J., Miaud, C., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I. 2016. Rana temporaria. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58734A86470817. . Downloaded on 30 June 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided