Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Eleutherodactylidae

Scientific Name: Eleutherodactylus thorectes
Species Authority: Hedges, 1988

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A3c; B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-12-18
Assessor(s): Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, Robert Powell
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because of an expected population decline of greater than 80% over the next ten years, predicted from severe degradation of the species' habitat on the Massif de la Hotte; Haiti; and because it has an Extent of Occurrence of less than 100km2 and an Area of Occupancy of less than 10km2, all individuals are in a single sub-population, and the extent of its forest habitat is declining.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:One of the smallest frogs in the world, this species has a very restricted range, occurring only on the peaks of Formon and Macaya at high elevations on the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its altitudinal range is from 1,700-2,340 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1700
Upper elevation limit (metres):2340
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Believed to be common in suitable habitat, it was last recorded in 1991 (although there have been no surveys of the area since).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is slightly arboreal in closed montane pine and cloud forest with shrubs, tree ferns, bromeliads, and climbing bamboo. Eggs are laid on the ground and it breeds by direct development.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Severe habitat destruction is taking place primarily due to logging (charcoal collection) by local people and slash-and-burn agriculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known only from the Parc National Macaya, but there is no management of this area for conservation, and the habitat continues to be destroyed. Urgent site-based action is required in the Massif de la Hotte to conserve the remaining habitat in the area. Survey work is also necessary to determine the current population status of this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):100
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Hedges, S.B. 1988. A new diminutive frog from Hispaniola (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus). Copeia: 636-641.

Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2(3): 290-303.

Hedges, S.B. 1999. Distribution of amphibians in the West Indies. In: W.E. Duellman (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective, pp. 211-254. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Hedges, S.B. 2001. Caribherp: database of West Indian amphibians and reptiles ( Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Hedges, S.B. and Díaz, L.M. 2009. Amphibian conservation in the West Indies. In: H.H. Heatwole and J.W. Wilkenson (eds), Amphibian Biology: Conservation and Decline of Amphibians, Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.

Hedges, S.B. and Powell, R. 1998. Eleutherodactylus thorectes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.

Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 1999. West Indian herpetoecology. In: B.I. Crother (ed.), Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 223-226. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 2001. Responses by the West Indian herpetofauna to human-influenced resources. Caribbean Journal of Science 37: 41-54.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Citation: Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, Robert Powell. 2010. Eleutherodactylus thorectes. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T57004A11563733. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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