Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Callixalus pictus
Species Authority: Laurent, 1950
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-06-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Greenbaum, E. & Menegon, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Measey, J.
Listed as Vulnerable given that its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 6,722 km2, its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 1,500 km2, it is known from two threat-defined locations and there is ongoing habitat degradation in the Itombwe and Kabobo highlands.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the Itombwe and Kabobo highlands of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. It has never been found below 2,100 m asl, and is rare below 2,400 m asl. Its range, taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), has been estimated as 6,722 km2 and it is considered to be confined to two threat-defined locations. There have been no recent, confirmed records of this species (E. Greenbaum and M. Menegon pers. comm. June 2012). Its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at approximately 1,500 km2 based on the forested area above 2,400 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1500
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):2100
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no recent information on the population status of this species. However, subpopulations in both known areas are subjected to habitat degradation and, therefore, decline assuming a linear relationship with habitat decline. Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species of high-altitude forests, especially bamboo forest. By day, it hides in broken bamboo stems at 2-4 m above the ground, or, where bamboo is scarce, it hides between bark and moss, which covers the tree trunks. There is no information on its breeding, but it is presumed to breed in water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It appears to be restricted to unprotected habitats that are being lost due to agriculture, livestock farming, wood extraction, and expanding human settlements. There are current efforts to create protected areas to reduce these threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known from any protected areas. There is ongoing habitat degradation in this area of the Itombwe Massif, which is of concern. Although a protected area is proposed, there is currently no active conservation work. Further survey work is required to determine the current distribution, population status and natural history of the species, as well as threats.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Unknown  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Laurent, R.F. 1950. Diagnoses preliminaires de treize batraciens nouveaux d'Afrique centrale. Revue de Zoologie et Botanie Africaine: 1-18.

Laurent, R.F. 1964. Adaptive modifications in frogs of an isolated highland fauna in central Africa. Evolution: 458-467.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2013. Callixalus pictus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T56091A16937397. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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