Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Acanthixalus spinosus
Species Authority: (Buchholz & Peters, 1875)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-06-19
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A. & Amiet, J.-L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and its presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from southeastern Nigeria and southern Cameroon east to northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), and south to extreme western Democratic Republic of Congo (Mayombe). It has been recorded from Gabon, and presumed to occur in southwestern Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, and the Cabinda Enclave of Angola. The species' distribution on the map includes areas the species is presumed to occur.
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Gabon; Nigeria
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a hard species to find, and so its abundance is unclear.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It lives in lowland rainforest. The frogs are arboreal and aquatic spending most of their time, and breeding, in the small bodies of water that accumulate in cavities of living and dead trees. It can survive in heavily degraded forest, providing that large trees survive.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Despite its tolerance of habitat modification, it depends on large trees with holes that collect rainwater, and is presumably affected by ongoing forest loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It presumably occurs in a number of protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Unknown
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Amiet, J.-L. 1986. La Batrachofaune sylvicole d'un secteur forestier du Cameroun: la région de Yaounde. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle: 29-42.

Burger, M., Branch, W.R. and Channing, A. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Monts Doudou, Gabon: species turnover along an elevational gradient. California Academy of Sciences Memoir: 145-186.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Lamotte, M., Perret, J.-L. and Dzieduszycka, S. 1959. Contribution a l'etude des batraciens de l'ouest Africain. IX. Les formes larvaires de Petropedetes palmipes, Conraua goliath et Acanthixalus spinosus. Bulletin de l'Institution Fondamental d'Afrique Noire: 762-776.

Largen, M.J. and Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1991. Amphibians (Anura) from the Kouilou River basin, Republique du Congo. Tauraco Research Report: 145-168.

Perret, J.-L. 1961. La biologie d'Acanthixalus spinosus (Amphibia Salienta). Rech. Etud. Cameroun: 90-101.

Perret, J.-L. 1966. Les Amphibiens du Cameroun. Zoologische Jahrbuecher fuer Systematik: 289-464.

Rödel, M.-O., Kosuch, J., Veith, M. and Ernst, R. 2003. First record of the genus Acanthixalus Laurent, 1944 from the Upper Guinean Rain Forest, West Africa, with a description of a new species. Journal of Herpetology: 43-52.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2013. Acanthixalus spinosus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T56055A18369717. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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