Rhinella rostrata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella rostrata (Noble, 1920)
Common Name(s):
English Mesopotamia Beaked Toad
Synonym(s):
Rhamphophryne rostrata (Noble, 1920)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-21
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Neam, K.
Contributor(s): Marin, C., Molina, C., Lynch, J. & Bolívar, W.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L., NatureServe
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered in view of its very restricted distribution—its area of occupancy  (AOO) is 4 km2 and its extent of occurrence (EOO) 13 km2—in the Central Cordillera of Colombia and its occurrence in only one location, where there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of habitat due to agricultural activities and livestock. It has not been seen since 1914, despite searches at the type locality and it is possible that it is now extinct.
Date last seen: 1914
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the type locality of "Santa Rita Creek, fourteen miles north of the village of Mesopotamia in the southern part of the Department of Antioquia, Colombia", at 2,472 m asl. There are two specimens assigned to this species in the Texas Natural History Collection (Austin, Texas) from 1971, but they require verification and the localities of these are not mapped. It is unlikely to range more widely. Its AOO is estimated as 4 km2, its EOO is 13 km2, and it occurs in only one threat-defined location.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Colombia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):2472
Upper elevation limit (metres):2472
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is known from only two specimens collected in 1914. Searches of the type locality since then have not found it, and it is possible that it is now extinct (Colombia Red List Assessment Workshop August 2016). Its population trend is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The type locality was forest when the specimens were collected, but the exact habitat requirements of the species are still unknown. It presumably breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat in the area of the type locality is habitat loss due to agriculture and livestock grazing.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species has not been recorded in any protected areas.

Research Needed
Further survey work is needed to establish whether or not the species still occurs at the type locality or in any location outside the type locality, as the species might already be extinct in view of the scale of habitat destruction in the general vicinity.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 1(3): 289-319.

Cochran, D.M. and Goin, C.J. 1970. Frogs of Colombia. United States National Museum Bulletin, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Grant, T. 1999. Una nueva especie de Rhamphophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Revista Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 287-299.

Graybeal, A. and Cannatella, D.C. 1995. A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific Bufonid taxa. Herpetologica 51(2): 105-131.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Lynch, J.D. and Renjifo, J.M. 1990. Two new toads (Bufonidae: Rhamphophryne) from the northern Andes of Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 24(4): 364-371.

Noble, G.K. 1920. Two new Batrachians from Colombia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 42: 441-446.

Rivero, J.A. and Castaño, C. 1990. A new and peculiar species of Rhamphophryne (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Antioquia, Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 24(1): 1-5.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.

Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new Genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science 216: 1-40.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Rhinella rostrata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54881A85876308. . Downloaded on 16 December 2017.
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