Nectophrynoides viviparus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Nectophrynoides viviparus
Species Authority: (Tornier, 1905)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Simon Loader, John Poynton, Kim Howell
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat in the Eastern Arc Mountains is declining.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains and in the Southern Highlands of eastern and southern Tanzania. It is a montane species, ranging from 1,350-2,800m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is relatively common.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a terrestrial species living in forest, bamboo, and grasslands at the forest edge. It has been found in maize cultivation, but needs to be close to the forest edge, and probably cannot tolerate complete opening up of its habitat. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is habitat loss, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in several forest reserves, but has not been found in any well-protected area. It might occur in the Udzungwa National Park, but has thus far not been recorded. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.

Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: Lovett, J.C. and Wasser, S.K. (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Menegon, M. 2000. Nectophrynoides viviparus diet. Herpetological Review: 41.

Perret, J.-L. 1971. Les especes du genre Nectophrynoides d'Afrique (Batraciens Bufonides). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 99-109.

Perret, J.-L. 1972. Les especes des genres Wolterstorffina et Nectophrynoides d'Afrique. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 93-119.

Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Poynton, J.C. 1998. Tanzanian bufonid diversity: preliminary findings. Herpetological Journal: 3-6.

Poynton, J.C. 2003. Altitudinal species turnover in southern Tanzania shown by anurans: some zoogeographical considerations. Systematics and Biodiversity: 117-126.

Citation: Simon Loader, John Poynton, Kim Howell. 2004. Nectophrynoides viviparus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54846A11215098. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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