Chlorolestes apricans 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Synlestidae

Scientific Name: Chlorolestes apricans
Species Authority: Wilmot, 1975
Common Name(s):
English Amatola Malachite, Basking Malachite

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-04-01
Assessor(s): Samways, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Simaika, J.P., Kipping, J., Suhling, F. (Odonata Red List Authority) & Pollock, C.M. (IUCN Red List Unit)
Chlorolestes apricans qualifies for an Endangered assessment due to the small number and small size of subpopulations, several of which have been lost between 1975 (when the species was known from ten sites) and 2000 (when it was known only from two sites) through habitat loss and modification. The population is expected to decline over the next ten years if habitat loss and degradation continues. Current area of occupancy is less than 500 kmĀ² and there is continuing decline in range, habitat and population size. It is therefore listed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2007 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:In 1975, this species was known from ten sites (Wilmot 1975), whereas in 2000 it was known from only two, showing a decline in extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, as well as decline in extent and quality of suitable habitat. It is currently known only from the Kubusi (near Stutterheim) and the Thorn River, eastern Cape, South Africa.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0-500
Number of Locations:2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is estimated that no more than 1,000 adults (per generation) exist, and even this may be a generous estimate. Population trends are unknown.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species inhabits clear, shallow, rocky streams with riffles and glides and with an abundance of long grass, herbs and indigenous overhanging bushes (used as oviposition sites).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Populations are severely threatened by cattle trampling stream banks and the synergistic effects of shading of the habitat by the alien invasive tree Acacia mearnsii. Further adverse synergistic effects include detergent entering the streams at Stutterheim, and possibly also the effects of direct predation from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is not known from any protected areas. Surveys on further localities are urgently required. Removal of Acacia mearnsii should continue. Liaison with local farmers is essential so that cattle may enter streams at certain points only, fencing off other areas of the stream.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Acacia mearnsii)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Samways, M.J. 1999. Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28: 13-62.

Samways, M.J. 2002. A strategy for national red listing invertebrates based on experiences with Odonata in South Africa. African Entomology 10: 43-52.

Samways, M.J. 2004. Critical species of Odonata in southern Africa. International Journal of Odonatology 7: 255-262.

Samways, M.J. 2006. Honing Red List assessments of lesser known taxa in biodiversity hotspots. Biodiversity and Conservation 16(9): 2575-2586.

Samways, M.J. 2006. National Red List of South African Odonata. Odonatologica 35: 341-368.

Samways, M.J. and Taylor, S. 2004. Impacts of invasive alien plants on red-listed South African dragonflies (Odonata). South African Journal of Science 100: 78-80.

Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2005. A fieldguide to the damselflies of South Africa. Privately published by the authors, Nylstroom.

Wilmot, B.C. 1975. A new species of Chlorolestes from the Eastern Cape Province. Journal of the Entomological Society of south Africa 38: 13-17.

Citation: Samways, M.J. 2010. Chlorolestes apricans. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T4731A11091140. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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