Chioglossa lusitanica 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Chioglossa lusitanica
Species Authority: Bocage, 1864
Common Name(s):
English Golden-striped Salamander
Spanish Salamandra Rabilarga
Taxonomic Notes: Two distinct subspecies are recognized, C. l. lusitanica and C. l. longipes (Arntzen et al. 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Jan Willem Arntzen, Jaime Bosch, Mathieu Denoël, Miguel Tejedo, Paul Edgar, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Rafael Marquez
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Vulnerable because its Area of Occupancy is probably less than 2,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of locations in Portugal and Spain.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Indeterminate (I)
1990 Indeterminate (I)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to mountainous and hilly areas in north-western Spain (Galicia and Asturias) and northern and central Portugal with an annual precipitation of over 1,000mm. Its distribution is patchy because its required habitat is fragmented. It has been introduced to the Serra de Sintra, Portugal. It has an altitudinal distribution 100-1,000m asl (records above 1,000m asl require confirmation).
Countries occurrence:
Portugal; Spain
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a localized species that can be abundant in suitable habitats (4-5 adults per metre of brook habitat). Eastern Spanish populations are found at lower population densities, and there have been reports of declines and extinctions of some populations in Galicia. In Portugal, populations are widespread and abundant (P. Arntzen pers. comm.) and not in any immediate danger, but they are considered to be vulnerable because of their specialized habitat requirements (Paulo 1997).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is associated with clear, well-oxygenated, small- to medium-sized slightly acidic streams (although in Portugal it has been found in water with pH 7-8), with dense surrounding vegetation in mountainous and hilly areas. The species has also been recorded from caves and abandoned flooded mines. It is associated with broad-leaved oak forest, and occurs in secondary vegetation, but not usually in commercial plantations. Animals have been recorded from eucalypt plantations, pine forests and even shrubland (Taxus or Erica) (Iñigo Martínez-Solano pers. comm. December, 2008). The females lay approximately 12-20 eggs in shallow stream water, often attaching the eggs to the bottom substrate. It is often associated with areas of traditional farming practices, and is particularly found in dry stonewalls. Some populations in north-western Spain have disappeared following replacement of broad-leaved forest with other habitats.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to the species are pollution of streams with agrochemicals, canalization, and water extraction from streams for agricultural purposes, and the loss of terrestrial habitats associated with the streams through conversion to forestry plantations (Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations). In Portugal, habitat is at risk from fire.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and is also listed on Annexes II and IV of the EU Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in both Portugal and Spain. It occurs in several protected areas including Picos de Europa National Park, Spain, and Peneda-Gerêz National Park, Portugal.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.18. Wetlands (inland) - Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems (inland)
suitability: Suitable  
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
suitability: Suitable  
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.2. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Other Subterranean Habitats
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.3. Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

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Citation: Jan Willem Arntzen, Jaime Bosch, Mathieu Denoël, Miguel Tejedo, Paul Edgar, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Rafael Marquez. 2009. Chioglossa lusitanica. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T4657A11067463. . Downloaded on 26 May 2016.
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