Lyciasalamandra luschani 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Lyciasalamandra luschani
Species Authority: (Steindachner, 1891)
Regional Assessments:
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly included in the genus Salamandra, this taxon was assigned to the genus Lyciasalamandra by Veith and Steinfartz (2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Petros Lymberakis, Yakup Kaska, Yusuf Kumlutaş, Aziz Avci, Nazan Üzüm, Can Yeniyurt, Ferdi Akarsu, Varol Tok, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Murat Sevinç, Pierre-André Crochet, Theodore Papenfuss, Max Sparreboom, Sergius Kuzmin, Steven Anderson, Mathieu Denoël
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², all individuals are in fewer than ten locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from Fethiye to Finike, in south-western Anatolia, Turkey, where it apparently has a fragmented distribution. An endemic subspecies (Lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui) is found on the nearby Greek island of Kastellorizo (= Megisti). It may have a more continuous range than shown (Avci and Oz, pers. comm. 2008).
Countries occurrence:
Greece; Turkey
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is common to fairly abundant.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is associated with rocky limestone outcrops, and is often found in marquis scrub or pine woodlands (and not in modified habitats). The species is viviparous, producing one or two fully metamorphosed young; the gestation period is about one year.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Within its naturally restricted range, the species is potentially threatened by habitat loss caused by forest fires, and overcollection for scientific purposes. Currently, there is only limited habitat loss taking place, since the human population in its range is generally low, and there is little tourism in the area where it is found, but with ongoing development in the region habitat loss could become more severe.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present within a protected area in Greece, and is found in three protected areas in Turkey. More research is needed on the distribution of this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.

Baran, I. and Atatür, M.K. 1998. Turkish herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment, Ankara.

Baran, I. and Ücüncü, S. 1994. The state of Mertensiella luschani in Turkey. Mertensiella: 33-40.

Griffiths, R.A. 1996. Newts and Salamanders of Europe. Poyser Natural History, London.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.1). Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2009).

Olgun, K., Miaud, C. and Gautier, P. 2001. Age, growth and survivorship in the viviparous salamander Mertensiella luschani from southwestern Turkey. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 1559-1567.

Özeti, N. and Yilmaz, I. 1994. Türkiye amphibileri. Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Kitaplar Serisi: 221.

Steinfartz, S. and Mutz, T. 1999. Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891) Lykischer Salamander, Kleinasiatischer Salamander. In: Grossenbacher, K.G. and Thiesmeier, B. (eds), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Schwanzlurche I (Hynobiidae, Proteidae, Plethodontidae, Salamandridae 1: Pleurodeles, Salamandrina, Euproctus, Chioglossa, Mertensiella), pp. 367-397. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Thorn, R. 1968. Les salamandres d’Europe, d’Asia, et d’Afrique du Nord. Éditions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Veith, M. and Steinfartz, S. 2004. When non-monophyly results in taxonomic consequences - the case of Mertensiella within the Salamandridae (Amphibia: Urodela). Salamandra: 67-80.

Veith, M., Baran, I., Godmann, O., Kiefer, A., Öz, M. and Tunç, M.R. 2001. A revision of population designation and geographic distribution of the Lycian Salamander Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891). Zoology in the Middle East: 67-82.

Veith, M., Steinfartz, S., Zardoya, R., Seitz, A. and Meyer, A. 1998. A molecular phylogeny of “true” salamanders (family Salamandridae) and the evolution of terrestriality of reproductive modes. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research: 7-16.

Weisrock, D.W., Macey, J.R., Ugurtas, I.H., Larson, A. and Papenfuss, T.J. 2001. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography among Salamandrids of the "true" salamander clade: rapid branching of numerous highly divergent lineages in Mertensiella luschani associated with the rise of Anatolia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 434-448.

Citation: Petros Lymberakis, Yakup Kaska, Yusuf Kumlutaş, Aziz Avci, Nazan Üzüm, Can Yeniyurt, Ferdi Akarsu, Varol Tok, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Murat Sevinç, Pierre-André Crochet, Theodore Papenfuss, Max Sparreboom, Sergius Kuzmin, Steven Anderson, Mathieu Denoël. 2009. Lyciasalamandra luschani. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T41241A10422896. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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