Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Scientific Name: Mammillaria anniana
Species Authority: Glass & R.A.Foster
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaguita
Taxonomic Source(s): Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a valid species by cactus specialists, Anderson (2001), Hunt (1999) and Pilbeam (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-18
Assessor(s): Fitz Maurice, B & Fitz Maurice, W.A.
Reviewer(s): Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Wyatt, S.
Mammillaria anniana is listed as Critically Endangered under criterion B due to its occurrence in a single location, its extremely small  range (20 x 100 m), and a continuing population decline as a result of illegal collecting. In the 2002 assessment of the species and  80% decline was estimated (Fitz Maurice 1993), however, the population has not been visited since 1992 and surveys are needed. In addition, according to W.A. Fitz-Maurice's observations in 1992, this species had a small population consisting of less than 500 plants.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2002 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Tamaulipas, Mexico. It occurs at an elevation of 820 m asl on steep volcanic rock face in an area of 2,000 m2.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Tamaulipas)
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):820
Upper elevation limit (metres):820
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is found within a very small range. The current estimated population size is less than 500 individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is a microendemic. It is found on steep volcanic rock in semi-desert.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is in commercial cultivation around the world. There is little collection of wild individuals due to the inaccessibility of its habitat.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by illegal collecting because of its very small population size. Its location is now well known to both commercial and amateur collectors and is protected only by the difficulty of access.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on CITES Appendix II, but there is a need to enforce trade laws in the countries of destination to protect this species from collection from the wild. These plants have been widely propagated worldwide for 20 years. It does not occur in any protected area. This species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under category “subject to special protection” (Pr; SEMARNAT 2010).


Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, E.F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland.

Fitz Maurice, W. A. and B. 1993. Fieldnotes--A visit to Mammillaria anniana. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 65: 3.

Glass, C. and Foster, R. 1981. Mammillaria anniana. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 53: 2.

Hunt, D. 1999. CITES Cactaceae Checklist, 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Pilbeam, J. 1999. Mammillaria. Cirio Publishing Services, Southampton.

SEMARNAT. 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación.

Citation: Fitz Maurice, B & Fitz Maurice, W.A. 2013. Mammillaria anniana. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40825A2934856. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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