Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Atelidae

Scientific Name: Lagothrix poeppigii
Species Authority: Schinz, 1844
Common Name(s):
English Poeppig's Woolly Monkey, Red Woolly Monkey, Silvery Woolly Monkey
Spanish Macaco Barrigudo, Mono Barrigudo
Lagothrix lagotricha subspecies poeppigii (Schinz, 1844)
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of Lagothrix is based on Fooden (1963), but follows Groves (2001, 2005) in recognizing cana (E. Geoffroy, 1812), lugens Elliot, 1907, and poeppigii Schinz, 1844 as full species rather than subspecies of lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). Groves (2001, 2005) also recognized the form tschudii Pucheran, 1857, from Peru (see Cruz Lima 1945).

The provenance of a juvenile woolly monkey with orange-colored pelage illustrated by Cruz Lima (1945) was unknown until recently. A population was found by Carlos A. Peres on the upper Rio Jutai, upper Amazon (within the supposed range of L. poeppigii) and reported by M. G. G. van Roosmalen on the website , 5 August 2003 (accessed 29 September 2003). Van Roosmalen informed “that infants and juveniles of these orange woolly monkeys are often kept by the Katokina Indians living along the headwaters of the Rios Jutai and Jutaizinho, and sometimes show up as pets in the town of Eirunepe [Rio Juruá]”. On this same website, M. G. M van Roosmalen described a pale woolly monkey of unknown provenance, seen as pets in the town of Tabatinga. Van Roosmalen indicated that it is a previously undescribed form.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Stevenson, P., Link, A., Di Fiore, A., de la Torre, S. & Boubli, J.-P.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 45 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and habitat loss.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lagothrix poeppigii occurs south of the Ríos Napo and Amazonas (in Ecuador below 1,800 m), north of the Marañon it extends east from the Cordillera Oriental (Río Morona), but south of the Río Marañón to the west of the Río Huallaga as far south as the east (left bank) of the Rio Mayo. From there, the species is known from the east of the Hualaga soiuth as far as the Rio Aguaytia and Pachitea. Lagothrix cana occurs between the Ríos Ucayali and Pachitea. L. poeppigii occurs east of the Río Ucaylai as far south as the Río Inuya (Aquino and Encarnación 1994). According to Fooden (1963), the eastern range limit of L. poeppigii is the Rio Juruá, but variable shapes of reddish brown typical of the species extend through to the Rio Purus.
Countries occurrence:
Brazil (Acre, Amazonas); Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Peru
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In lowland Ecuador, where they have not been hunted, they are the most abundant primate in terms of biomass and numbers of individuals (T. di Fiore pers. comm.). Di Fiore (1997) recorded a density of more than 31 individuals/km² in the Yasuní National Park, Ecuador.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Occurs in primary forest, and does not occur in disturbed and secondary forests. In Ecuador, it occurs on tropical and subtropical terra firma and seasonally inundated forests at altitudes of 200 to 1,600 m above sea level

Field studes of this species have been carried out in the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, Peru (Soini 1986a,b, 1990) and the Yasuní National Park, Ecuador (Di Fiore and Rodman 2001; Di Fiore 2003, 2004, 2005; Di Fiore and Fleischer 2005). Di Fiore (1997) observed two groups in the Yasuní National Park, Ecuador; one of 22-23 and the other of 24-25, each woth multiple adult males and females. The home range of the former group was 124 ha, and the latter 108 ha (Di Fiore 2003).

Adult male weight mean 7.1 kg (n=6), adult female weight 4.53 kg (n=9) (Lu 1999, in Di Fiore and Campbell 2007))

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is subsistence and market hunting for food, and habitat loss due to small-holder agriculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in several protected areas.

Serra do Divisor National Park (846,408 ha) (Lopes and Rehg 2003)
Jutaí -Solimões Ecological Station (287,101 ha)
Javarí-Burití Area of Ecological Interest (15,000 ha)

Yasuní National Park (982,300 ha) (Di Fiore 2003; Tirira 2007)
Sangay National Park (517,765 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Podocarpus National Park (146,280 ha) (Tirira 2007)

Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (2,080,000 ha) (Soini 1990)
Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Communal Reserve.

This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.

da Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará, Brazil.

Dew, J. L. 2002. Synecology and seed dispersal in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha poeppigii) and spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in Parque Nacional Yasuní, Ecuador.

di Fiore, A. 2004. Diet and feeding ecology of woolly monkeys in a western Amazonian rain forest. International Journal of Primatology 24: 767-801.

di Fiore, A. and Fleischer, R. C. 2005. Social behavior, reproductive strategies, and population genetic structure of Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii. International Journal of Primatology 26: 1137-1173.

di Fiore, A. and Rodman, P. S. 2001. Time allocation patterns of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in a neotropical terra firma rain forest. International Journal of Primatology 22: 449-490.

Fiore, A., di. 2003. Ranging behavior and foraging ecology of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poepigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador. Americna Journal of Primatology 59: 47-66.

Fiore, A, di and Campbell, C. J. 2007. The atelines: variation in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspective, pp. 155-185. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 213-247.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Lopes. M. A. and Rehg, J. A. 2003. Observations of Callimico goeldii with Saguinus imperator in the Serra do Divisor National Park, Acre, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 11(3): 181-183.

Lu, F. E. 1999. Changes in susbsistence patterns and resource use of the Huaroni Indians in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Ph.D .Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Soini, P. 1986. A synecological study of a primate community in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru. Primate Conservation 7: 63-71.

Soini, P. 1986. Informe preliminar de la ecologia y dinamica poblacional de "choro", Lagothrix lagotricha (Primates). Informe de Pacaya, No. 20..

Soini, P. 1990. Ecología y dinámica poblacional del "Choro" (Lagothrix lagotricha, Primates) en Río Pacaya, Perú. La Primatolgia en el Perú, pp. 382-396. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología, Lima, Peru.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 2003. New species from Amazonia. Available at:

Williams, L. 1967. Breeding Humboldt's woolly monkey Lagothrix lagotricha at Murrayton Woolly Monkey Sanctuary. International Zoo Yearbook, pp. 86-89.

Wolf, R. H., Harrison, R. M. and Martin, T. W. 1975. A review of reproductive patterns in New World monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science 25: 814-821.

Citation: Stevenson, P., Link, A., Di Fiore, A., de la Torre, S. & Boubli, J.-P. 2008. Lagothrix poeppigii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39927A10290256. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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